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马洛礼《亚瑟王之死》中“正义”的维度

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内容提示: 复旦大学硕士学位论文马洛礼《亚瑟王之死》中“正义”的维度姓名:包慧怡申请学位级别:硕士专业:英语语言文学指导教师:谈峥2010-04-22 摘要近几十年来,李清照词一直是中国古典文学研究热点之一,中西对李清照词的翻译起步也都很早。尽管唐诗英译的研究已经日趋完善,但是对宋词英译的研究,尤其是李清照词的英译及研究尚未形成相当的气候,有待进一步深入,在对外翻译传播上缺乏一套系统的译论及相关的专门著作。因此,本论文尝试通过对李清照词的不同英译版本进行比较和对比研究,来总结一些可行、有效、合理的翻译策略,同时达到完善国内李清照词英译研究现状,实现比较文...

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复旦大学硕士学位论文马洛礼《亚瑟王之死》中“正义”的维度姓名:包慧怡申请学位级别:硕士专业:英语语言文学指导教师:谈峥2010-04-22 摘要近几十年来,李清照词一直是中国古典文学研究热点之一,中西对李清照词的翻译起步也都很早。尽管唐诗英译的研究已经日趋完善,但是对宋词英译的研究,尤其是李清照词的英译及研究尚未形成相当的气候,有待进一步深入,在对外翻译传播上缺乏一套系统的译论及相关的专门著作。因此,本论文尝试通过对李清照词的不同英译版本进行比较和对比研究,来总结一些可行、有效、合理的翻译策略,同时达到完善国内李清照词英译研究现状,实现比较文学研究与促进、推广中国古典诗词文化的目的。通过对不同译者和学者的翻译原则进行总结可以发现,英译李清照词的基本原则有四条:首先,译者必须出色掌握中文和英文两种语言所涉及的文化内涵,认真阅读原词并沉浸于原词之中;其次,译者必须首先是读者,然后才是译者,承担起读者和译者两种角色的双重责任,注意主体与原词之间的互动性;再次,译文必须保存并重现原词的意境,使得译文和原词的精神与内涵相吻合;最后,译者必须做到以诗译诗。总结了英译李词的总体原则之后,论文从语言和文化两方面对李清照的词进行了微观研究和分析。对李清照词中涉及语法结构的部分,论文分别检验了韵体译词和自由体译词的利弊,以及在译文中追求押韵是否有必要。同时,论文也具体讨论了译文中的句法、虚词的运用、采取第几人称和何种时态。通过分析,论文总结出不同文化背景的译者在英译过程中如何克服中英两种语言的差异、增加译文可读性、并有意兼顾英语读者的倾向。论文进一步讨论了可能阻碍翻译的李清照词中的文化元素,集中分析了词牌名的翻译,以及李清照在词中的口语化表达、朗朗上I=1的叠词、丰富的意象、修辞手法和典故应采取何种翻译策略。同时,论文也分析了不同译者采取何种翻译策略来重现李清照词中的整体意境,如何完 成由中文到英文翻译的文化移植过程。论文通过比较不同译者所英译的李清照词,分析了不同文化背景的译者如何在翻译的过程中缩小中文和英语之间的语言及文化差距、如何增加译文的可读性、如何在克服英译李清照词的困难过程中完成文化移植。论文也进一步从语言和文化两方面归纳了有效英译李清照词的不同策略。今后中西李清照词的翻译研究依旧面临着巨大的挑战,因此作者衷心希望更多的学者和译者能加入到中国古典诗词英译和研究的行列中来,为发扬中华文化作出一份力所能及的贡献。关键词:李清照,宋词,对比研究,英译,翻译策略中图分类号:H 315.92 AbstractAs asi gni fi cant part of Chi nesel i terary studi es,仃ansl m i onson LiQ i ngzhao’ Sci -poetry began earl yboth i n Chi na andoverseas.How ever, transl ati onstudi es onhowto transl ate thesec/-poem s have not beenprogressed equal l y.Theabsence of asetof system ati ctransl ati on theori es poses great i m pedi m entsi n the transl ati onprocess.Therefore,thi sthesi sattem ptstoanal yzeand sum m ari ze som eappl i cabl e,reasonabl e andfel i ci tous transl ati onstrategi es throughadetm l edcom parati vestudyofdi fferentEngl i shversi onsof LiQ i ngzhao’ S ci —poem s.Thethesi sal so ai m satcontri buti ngto thecurrent researches ofLiQ i ngzhao’ S ci —poem s,real i zi ngthepurposeofdoi ng com parati ve studyandprom oti ngthe art of cl assi cal Chi nesepoetry.Through scruti ny, thethesi s di scovers that there are fourgeneralpri nci pl esadvocated and sum m ari zedby schol ars and transl atorsconsi deri nghow to bettertransl ate LiQ i ngzhao’ S ci —poem s.Fi rstl y, thetransl ator m ust have agoodcom m and ofthe cul tures of the sourcel anguageand thetarget l anguage,ands/he shoul di ndul gehi m /hersel f i nreadi ngthetexts.Secondl y,thetransl ator becom es fi rst the reader andthen the transl ator to ful fi l l a dualresponsi bi l i ty.Thi rdl y, thetransl ati ons ofci -poem sshoul d ai matpreservi ngthe fl avor andatm osphereof theori gi nal poem ,SOthat thesetransl ati ons are true to thespi ri tof theori gi nal s.Fourthl y, thetransl ati on of apoemshoul d at l east read l i ke apoem .The thesi s then conducts m i croanal ysesoftheEngl i shtransl ati onsofLi ’ Sci -poem sfromtheperspecti vesofl anguageand cul ture.Al i ngui sti c com pari soni sm ade on how toapproach gram m ati calstructures i n Li Q i ngzhao’ S ci -poem s.Thetransl ati on of syntax,functi on w ords,persons,tenses and m etri calpatternsare di scussed i n detai l s.It al so exam i nes the m eri ts and dem eri ts of verse formandopenform ,andw hetherrhym i ngschem e i snecessary.Inthi sw ay, transl ators’ attem ptsandi ncl i nati onsto overcom ethe di fferences betw een the Chi nese and the Engl i shl anguagesand thei rparti cul arconsi derati on for Engl i shreaders Can be seen.Acul turalcom pari soni sfurther m ade aboutcul tural l y—l oadedel em ents thatbaffl etransl ati on.Itconcentrateson thestrategi esoftransl ati ng ci —poem ti tl es,LiQ i ngzhao’ S styl eof col l oqui al i sm ,m usi cal i ty, ri ch i m agery, rhetori c devi ces andal l usi ons,andstudi es how torecapturethe w hol eatm osphereand restore i t i n theEngl i shversi ons.In thi ssense,i t presentshowtransl atorscom pl etecul tural transfersi nthe transl ati onprocess.The thesi sanal yzes thetransl ators’ attem ptsto bri dgethegapsbetw een theChi nese and theEngl i sh l anguages,thei r parti cul arconsi derati on forEngl i sh readers,thei rendeavorsto i ncreasereadabi l i ty andcom pl etecul turaltransfersi n thetransl ati onprocess througha detai l edcom parati ve study.Itfurther sum m ari zes thestrategi esthat are effecti ve and fel i ci tous w hentransl ati ngLiQ i ngzhao’ S ci -poem sfroml i ngui sti cand cul turalperspecti ves.Futurestudi es of theEngl i shtransl ati ons ofLiQ i ngzhao’ S ci -poem ssti l l facegreat chal l enges.Therefore,theauthor of the thesi ssi ncerel y hopesthat m ore researchers andschol ars w oul dparti ci patei n the transl ati onand studi es of cl assi cal Chi nese w orks toprom otethe art ofci -poem s.KEYW O RD S:LiQ i ngzhao,ci —poem s,com parati ve study, Engl i shtransl ati ons,transl ati onstrategi esCl assi fi cati onCode:H 315.94 Introducti on1.Si gni fi canceandPurposeof theStudyCl assi calChi nesepoetry, especi al l y ci —poetry(aka l yri cs i n“ Tz’ U” form ),hasachi evedhi gh accom pl i shm entsandpresented dazzl i ngbri l l i ance i n the hi storyofCl assi cal Chi nesel i terature.U pti l l now , c#poem ’S l asti ngcharmhas been,i s,andw i l lsti l l attract dom esti c and i nternati onal schol ars to devote thei r ti m e andenergi estostudyi ngit.Thestudy coul d,fi rstof al l ,be ani m portant suppl em entto thedom esti c researchoftransl ati ngLi Q i ngzhao’ S ci —poem si ntoEngl i sh.Al thoughstudi es of transl ati oni tsel fandtransl ati onaltheori eshavem adegreatprogressi nthedecades,concentrati ons ontransl ati ngcl assi cal Chi nesepoetry, especi al l y ci -poemfromSongDynasty( 960---1279) w erefar fromenough.Am ongvari ous transl ators ofci —poem ,fewpeopl ehadbeenfocusi ngon theEngl i shtransl ati ons of LiQ i ngzhao’ S ci —poem si n asystem ati c w ay.H ence,i ti s a ferti l e l and to be further cul ti vatedbyschol ars.Concerni ngthe above si tuati ons,a com prehensi veand concentratedstudyon thevari ousEngl i shtransl ati ons of Li Q i ngzhao’ S ci —poem sw oul d be anecessi tyand evena hi stori calsuppl em entto the fi el d ofcom parati ve studyontransl ati ngLiQ i ngzhao.Secondl y, the studycoul d faci l i tate thethi nki ngof howtoprom oteChi nesecul tures.Cul tural l y speaki ng,theW esternersbeganto knowChi nese cul tures by readi ngthetransl ati ons of cl assi calChi nesephi l osophi cal books and otherl i teraryw orks.W hatattract themare thoseheterogeni ccul tural el em ents di fferent fromthei rs.Al thoughdi storti ons andm i sunderstandi ngsare i nevi tabl e,i t i sthroughthese cul turalcl ashesthat w e can beuerprom oteour nati vecul tures.Thi rdl y, the studycoul d real i ze thegoalof doi ngacom parati ve study.As thestudyi s acom parati veone based ondi fferent transl ati on versi ons,i t coul dapproachLiQ i ngzhao’ S ci -poem sand thei r5 transl ati ons from newperspecti ves by referri ngto col l ecti ons edi tedbyw esterntransl atorsand schol ars.Through com pari son,thestudycoul d m ake obj ecti vej udgm ents,di scussi ngm eri ts and dem eri ts ofprevi ousand current research w ork ontheEngl i shtransl ati ons of Li Q i ngzhao’ S ci —poem sanddi scoveri nghowtransl atorsattem ptto overcom e the di fferences betw een the Chi neseandEngl i sh l anguages.Thethesi s i ntends tostudythe effecti vestrategi esandpri nci pl es appl i cabl ew hentransl ati ngLiQ i ngzhao’ S ci -poem s throughdetai l edscruti nyandanal yses of theEngl i sh transl ati onsi n term s ofl anguageand cul ture.Theauthorexpectstosum m ari ze the opti m altransl ati onstrategi es andpri nci pl es,thusto recreate thel um i nousness of Li ’ Sl yri cal songs,andtobri ngi nto our l i ves herbri ght,resourcefulpersonal i ty.Therefore,thethesi sful fi l l s a tw ofol d ai m :tostudy anal yti cal l yandcom parati vel ytheEngl i shtransl ati ons ofpoeti calw orks of LiQ i ngzhaoi nparti cul ar,and toexposeChi nese and W esternvi ew poi ntson the nature ofci —poetrytransl ati oni ngeneral .2.M ethod of theStudyO ne of the m ost usefulcri ti cal m ethods forapproachi ng poetrytransl ati oni s acom parati ve one,because onecf l nexam i nethedi versi ty of transl ati onstrategi es used,andfurtheranal yzethosestrategi esi n al i ngui sti c and cul turalcontext.Accordi ngtoJ am esH ol m es,thethesi sbel ongstoproduct—ori ented DTS( Descri pti veTransl ati onStudi es).Hebel i eves that“ thestarti ng poi ntfor thi stypeofstudyi s thedescri pti onofi ndi vi dualtransl ati ons,or text—focused transl ati ondescri pti on” (Hol m es,72).Inthi scase,the authorgradual l yenri ches herstudyfromreadi ngcertai n schol ars l i ke XuYuanzhongand Kenneth Rexroth’ SEngl i shtransl ati ons of LiQ i ngzhao’ S ci —poem s.And the secondphaseof D TS i s acom parati ve one,“ i nw hi chcom parati ve anal ysesal e m ade of vari ous transl ati ons of the sam etext,ei theri n asi ngl e l anguageor i nvari ousl anguages” (H ol m es,72).Inthi sphase,through anal yzi ngthesi m i l ari ti es anddi spari ti es,parti cul arl ythedi spari ti esof vari oustransl ati ons i naspectsof the choi cesofw ords,syntax,formandrhym i ng schem es,rhetori cal devi ces,styl eand SOon,theauthor attem ptsto shedl i ghton howtransl ators can transfer betw een Chi nese and6 Engl i shand real i zedynam i c equi val ences betw een the tw ol anguages i nci -poemtransl ati on.3.Structure of theStudyThe thesi s i s di vi ded i nto sevenchapters.The i ntroducti onpart m ai nl yi ntroducesthesi gni fi canceandpurposeof thestudyontransl m i ngLi Q i ngzhao’ S ci -poem s.Ital so i ntroduces the research m ethod of thestudy, w hi chi s acom parati ve one,adescri pti vetransl ati onstudy.Chapter O ne del ves i nto l i terature revi ew .It focuses onhow researches onEngl i shtransl ati ons of LiQ i ngzhao’ S ci —poem s progressedbothdom esti cal l yandi nternati onal l y.Authorsandbooks that contri buted to the transl ati ontask are m enti oned i n thi schapter.ChapterTw o deal s w i th an overvi ew of m ai ntheori esappl i cabl etotransl ati ngLi ’ Sci -poem s.Ittakes a bri ef l ook at Li ’ Sbi ography,w hi ch i scl osel yassoci ated w i th the them es of herci -poem s.It doi ng SO ,i ti sexpectedto shedl i ghton thegeneral pri nci pl es advocatedbyschol ars andspeci fi cschool ssupported by transl atorsconsi deri nghowto transl ate Li ’ Sci —poem s.ChapterThreechapter di gsi nto detai l edanal yses of howtoapproach l i ngui sti c el em ents i n Li ’ Sci -poem si n term s ofgrm m nati calstructure,w hi chformshoul d be takenandw hetherrhym i ngschem e i snecessary.Syntax,functi on w ords,persons,tenses,verse form ,openformand m etri calpatternsare di scussed i ndetai l s.ChapterFour l ookscareful l yi ntocul tural l y—l oadedel em ents that baffl e transl ati on.It concentrates on thestrategi esof transl ati ons ofti tl es,Li Q i ngzhao’ S styl eofcol l oqui al i sm ,m usi cal i ty, ri ch i m agery,rhetori c devi ces,al l usi ons and the w hol eatm osphere represented.Inthe concl usi onpart,theauthor sum m ari zes the m ai n i deas of the w hol e thesi s and w hatstrategi esareeffecti ve and fel i ci tous w hentransl ati ngLiQ i ngzhao’ S ci -poem s.Theconcl usi on al sopoi ntsout theadvantagesandshortcom i ngsof the thesi s and l ook ahead to the futurestudi es.7 ChapterO neResearchesontheEngl i shTransl ati onsofLiQ i ngzhao’ SCi - Poem s and Thei r Transl ati on Studi es1.1 Bri efBi ographyof Li Q i ngzhao and H er W orksLi Q i ngzhaow as bomi n1 084 to aprom i nentfam i l y of schol ar-offi ci al s i nShandong provi nce.Asthedaughterofan el i te and educatedfam i l y, Q i ngzhaorecei ved anunusual l yl i beral upbri ngi ngfor aw om an,andshe W as endow ed w i thprodi gi ous m em ory.In1 1 0 1 she m arri ed ZhaoM i ngcheng( akaChaoM i ng—ch’ eng),and thecoupl ethen l ed ani dyl l i cl i fe of shared i ntel l ectualpursui ts.It,how ever,cam eto anabruptend i n1 1 26 w hen the J urchedpeopl em arched i nto thecapi talof theN orthernSongand tookpri sonertherei gni ng em perorand hi s father.Li Q i ngzhao’ Shusband di ed enroute of the fl ed and shespentthe rest of her l i fe i n the south.LiQ i ngzhao’ S arti strycannot beseparatedfromherbi ography.H erearl y poerty, ful l ofvi tal i tyandel egant di cti on,pai ntsvi gnettesof her carefreedaysas a w om an ofhi 曲soci etyw hoenj oyedfreedomtoparti ci patei ndri nki ng parti esandpoetrycontests and w ho W as fond ofpl ayi ngon thesw i ngand ofboati ng.(N i enhauser, 535)H er i ntense rom anti c andi ntel l ectualrel ati onshi pw i th herhusband,herl ove ofbooks and art are refl ected i n herearl yw orks.“ But thepoem sw ri tten after husband’ Sdeathportrayheras鲥ef-stri cken” (N i enhauser, 535).Theyare i nfused w i thbi tterness and the them e ofm ourni ngfor al l absent husband.Li Q i ngzhaow as sai d to have been the author of a sm al lcol l ecti onofcicom posi ti ons“ Ri nse—J ade Col l ecti on” .The m ost careful l y—authenti catedtext of her w orks i s offered bythe m odemschol arTangGui zhang.(Li u& Lo.844)enti tl edSouyu j i ,or8 Unfortunatel y, ‘ ‘ onl ya sm al l porti onof her totalpoeti c output--som e fi fty l yri csout of som e si x vol um es--i s nO Wextant” ( Chang& Saussy, 89) .O nthe other hand,onl yfourEngl i shm onographsthat deal w i thcom pl ete ci —poem sof LiQ i ngzhaohavebeen found:Kenneth Rexroth andLi ng Chung’SLi Ch’ i ng-chao:Com pl ete Poem s,H uPi n-chi ng’ SLi Ch’ i ng-chao,Xu Yuanzhong’SL#erature and Transl ati on w hi chi ncl udesEngl i shtransl ati ons of si xtyof LiQ i ngzhao’ S ci - poem s and J i aoshengW ang’ Sessay“ Com pl eteCi —Poem sofLiQ i ngzhao:A N ew Transl ati on' ’ .U nfortunatel y, the form er tw oare i naccessi bl ei n dom esti cl i brari es,el ectroni cversi onsonl i ne coul d provi de onl yporti onsofthe contentsdue to copyri ghtprotecti on.1.2 D om esti e ResearchesThe thesi sfocuses on theEngl i shtransl ati ons ofLiQ i ngzhao’ S ci -poem s,researches ofLiQ i ngzhaoand her ci -poem s from theperspecti vesof Chi nesel i terature i n Chi nese aresi m pl i fi ed,exceptfor those contexts that causecontroversy.H ence,the l i terature revi ewgoes di rectl yto the dom esti chi storyoftransl ati ngLi ’ Sci -poem si ntoEngl i sh.Bi ngXi n w as the fi rst Chi nese schol ar w ho transl ated LiQ i ngzhao’ S ci 。poemi ntoEngl i sh.Bi ngXi n w ent tostudyatW el l esl ey Col l egei n 1923,earni ngaM aster’ SD egreei n l i terature i n 1 926.In J une 1926,Bi ngXi nfi ni shed her M .A.thesi s enti tl ed“ AnEngl i shTransl ati on and Edi ti on of the Poem s ofLadyLiI-an” ,i nw hi ch sheattem ptedto transl ate 25ci -poem sw ri ttenbyLi Q i ngzhao.Thethesi s W as a hi stori calone,becauseit W as thefi rst ti m ethat a Chi nese schol ar had i ntroduced Li Q i ngzhao’ Sci —poem si nto the W estern w orl d i nEngl i sh.Chu Dagao( akaCh’ UTa- kao or T.K.Chn1 coul d be consi deredasthe second Chi nese schol ar w ho i ntroducedEngl i shversi ons of LiQ i ngzhao’ S ci -poem stO the Engl i shreaders.H i s Chi neseLyri cspubl i shedi n1937by Cam bri dge U ni versi ty Press w as now here to be found now .W hatI coul dgetnO WW as hi s l ater book 101Chi neseLyri cs publ i shed byN ewW orl dExpressi n 1987,i nw hi ch he transl ated fi veci - poem sof Li Q i ngzhao.N everthel ess,9 bothBi ngXi n and ChuDagao’ s earl y publ i cati onsoftransl ati ngLi Q i ngzhaow erepubl i shedandpopul ari zedi n theW est;i tW aS i n the 1980s that dom esti cpubl i shi nghousesbegantopubl i shbooks that transl ated Li ’ sci —poem s.W en Xi anl i ang’ SAnEngl i shTransl ati on ofChi nese Anci ent Poem sof1985 and XuZhongj i e’ s100Chi nese Ci - Poem s i nEngl i shVerse coul d be counted aLs the fi rst tw o rel evant bookspubl i shed dom esti cal l y.N otunti lthel ate1980sdi dresearch on the Engl i shtransl ati ons of LiQ i ngzhao’ S ci —poem sstarttoenj oy grow th,w hi chw ascl osel yrel ated to the hi stori cprogressof the dom esti cstudyonci -poem si n Chi nese.Fromthe 1950s to l ate 1970s,Li Q i ngzhaow asw i l l ful l y depreci atedand evencom pl etel ynegated.Itw asi m possi bl etotransl ate her w orks then.Later, contem poraryresearches on LiQ i ngzhaohadprogressedon theri ghttrack,schol ars and i ntel l ectual s hadshapedacom prehensi veandobj ecti ve understandi ngofLi Q i ngzhao,the arti stryanddepthof herci -poem s.Fromearl y1980s,researchandstudyon howto transl ate LiQ i ngzhao’ S ci -poem s begantoprosper.In1981,XuYuanzhong putforw ard hi s fam ous“ ThreeBeauti es” pri nci pl es,w hi chi ncl udes‘ ‘ Beautyi nsense’ ’ ,‘ ‘ Beautyi nsound’ ’ and‘ ‘ Beautyi n form ’ ’ on the fi rst i ssue ofChi nese乃协nsl ators J ournal .H e bel i eves that the transl ati on of cl assi cal Chi nesepoetry shoul d m eet the dem and of “ ThreeBeauti es” ,and the thesi s W aS based oncom pari sons of di fferent Engl i shtransl ati ons of Li Q i ngzhao’ S“ Tune:Sl ow , Sl owSong” .O therdom esti c schol ars w ho advocate verseapproachi ncl ude XuZhongj i e,W ang Q uanhong,etc.Li n Yutang,ani ntel l ectual w ho has agoodcom m and of bothChi nese andEngl i shhol ds theopi ni onthat the i nnerrhythmof apoemi s ofgreati m portance.H edoes notpl ace em phasi son therhym i ng schem es,but hi s choi ces ofw ords Canperfectl yrefl ect theatm osphereconveyed bythepoem .Anotherm aster oftransl ati on,Yang Xi anyibel i eves that fai thful ness i s the utm ostpri nci pl ei ntransl ati ngpoetry, andheopenl y opposes rhym i ng.G ong J i nghaoandW ang Shouyi al so sharethe sam eopi ni onw i mYangthatpreservi ngthefi del i tyof theori gi nalpoemi s atransl ator’ S fundam entaltask.Looki ng through the w hol ehi story, w e can di scover that researcheson LiQ i ngzhao’ S ci —poem sare baffl edbysuch di ffi cul ti es as Li ’ Sl i fe,especi al l yher second m arri age,the authenti ci ty andchronol ogyof herci —poem sand SO on.Theam bi gui tyof theseprobl em s di rectl yi nfl uences theEngl i shtransl ati ons of Li ’ Sci —poem s.O nonehand,thereare feww ri tten m ateri al spreservedfor Li Q i ngzhao’ Sl i fe andpoem s.Research m ateri al s3n Li Q i ngzhaow ri tten i nEngl i share i n a seri ousshortage.Al though m any schol ars had tri ed to transl ate Li ’ Sci -poem s,w hat they transl atedw ereonl yseveralpi ecesofpoem s am ongal l of Li ’ Spoem s,andthe versi onsarescattered i n vari ouscol l ecti ons.Therefore,i ti sal lextrem el yarduous task i f onew ants to col l ect al l ofthem .Besi des,el ectroni cversi ons are unavai l abl eonl i ne,booksandessaysw ri ttenbyi nternati onalschol ars andpubl i shed by pressesoverseas are.,di ffi cul t toaccess.Am ongdom esti cpubl i cati ons,therei sonl yonebook that contai nsacom pl etetransl ati on of 60 of LiQ i ngzhao’ S cf.poem 卜—XuYuanzhong’ S‘ ‘ 文学与翻译” (1i teral l y, l i teratureandtransl ati on)publ i shedi n 2003.XuYuanzhongdedi catesonechaptertotheEngl i shtransl ati ons of Li ’ Sci —poem sand m akesperti nentrem arks.Iti s api tythat there i s not asi ngl e m onographi c publ i cati onthat contai nsEngl i shtransl ati ons of LiQ i ngzhao’ S com pl ete poem s.Iti shi ghti m e dom esti c schol ars stri vetochangethe aw kw ard si tuati on.O n the otherhand,i norder to sol ve theprobl emofseverel y l acki ngi n w ri tten m ateri al s,schol ars have to turn to the l i m i ted num ber ofrem ai ni ngversi ons forhel p.Inthi sw ay, di fferent i nterpretati ons,evendi storted onesal epresented,m aki ng obj ecti ve j udgrnentsm ore di ffi cul t.In other w ords,w hat thetransl ators choose totransl ate has deci ded howthe readers w i l li nterpretLi Q i ngzhao,thuscausi ngadi l em m a.Furtherm ore,i ti sthought-provoki ngthatdom esti ctransl ators had show nparti cul ar appreci ati onfor theshi —poem “ 乌江” (1i teral l y, W u Ri ver),w hi ch depi ctsthei m posi ngm anner ofXi ang Yu,theanci ent hero and fam ous w arri or of anci entChi na, w ho al m ost becam e aspokesm anfor theunyi el di ngnati onalspi ri t.O nthecontrary, readers i n the w estern w orl d feeli t hard toacceptChi nesepoemw i thpol i ti calthem es.Al l w estern transl ators havel eftthese‘ ' pol i ti cal ’ ’ poem sal oneexceptKenneth Rexroth andLi ng Chung,w hocontri buted achapterenti tl ed“ Pol i ti cs’ ’ w hentransl ati ngLi Q i ngzhao’ S ci -poem si nLi Ch"i ng-chao:Com pl etePoem s.It i ssi m pl ybecause Li Q i ngzhao’ s ci —poem shaveconveyedan al i enati on and exoti c effect that Engl i sh poetryhave not.Internati onal schol ars transl ate themSO that readers i n thew estern w orl d cal lfeelthesubtl ety and nuances of feel i ngs conveyed bythem .Pol i ti cal el em ents or w hat w ecal l ed‘ ‘ i deol ogy” Rrenot w hat transl ators i n theEngl i shw orl dthi nki :agabout.Anotheri nteresti ng phenom enoni s that,fortheci -poem sthati ntel l ectual s haddoubts,such as“ Tune:M agnol i a Fl ow ers,ShortenedForm ’ ’ and“ Tune:Si l k—W ashi ngStream ” ,dom esti c schol ars chose to avoi dtransl ati ngthem .1.3Interaati onal ResearchesLi Q i ngzhao beganto attract the Am eri cans’ attenti ons fromthe1 950s or the1960s.O n one hand,the Am eri canpoeti cci rcl e created a newfashi on ofl earni ngfromforei gn poetry, i norderto getri d of the l ong—termm anacl ei m posed bytradi ti onal Bri ti shi nfl uences.D uri ngthe l ate1950s andearl y1960s,SanFranci scoRenai ssance M ovem entextrem el yadvocates thesi m pl ethem e and understatem ent ofChi nesepoetry.The poetKenneth Rexroth i sgeneral l yconsi dered to be thefoundi ngfather of therenai ssance.M eanw hi l e,hew as al so the one w ho hadtransl atedm anyofLiQ i ngzhao’ S ci —poem s.O nthe other hand,aRerthe Second W orl d W ar, thecatastrophehas shakenpeopl e’ S rel i gi ousbel i ef.The Am eri cansoci ety adoptedasuspi ci ousatti tude tow ard the w esternci vi l i zati on,theyturned to tradi ti onal Chi nesecul tures to m eet thei rpsychol ogi calneeds.The book TheArtofLi vi ngw ri ttenbyLi nYutanghas sati sfi ed theAm eri cans’ curi osi tyto understand thew ayChi nesepeopl el i ve and thi nk.Thehi storyof thepopul ari zati onof LiQ i ngzhao’ S ci -poem si n the w esternw orl dcoul d be di vi ded i nto threestages.Thefi rst one w as the 1 950s and the 1960s,m arkedby Kenneth Rexroth’ S 1 00 Poem sfromtheChi nese( 1956) andH uPi n—chi ng’ SLiCh’ i ng-chao(1966).Invi ted byedi tors of Tw ayne叠W ormAuthors Seri es,H uPi n—chi ngtook theresponsi bi l i tyofi ntroduci ngLiQ i ngzhaoi nto the w esternsoci ety.H u’ S LiCh’ i ng-chaoW as the fi rst com pl etew orks of Li Q i ngzhaow ri ttenbyaChi neseschol ar i nEngl i sh,w hi chbecam e acanonbook referred tobyl ater schol ars.Engl i sh-l anguagecri ti ci sm ofLiQ i ngzhao’ Sw ork beganw i th Kai - YuH su’ S i nfl uenti al1 962essay“ ThePoem s of Li Ch’ i ng—Chao” .M eanw hi l e,Anthol ogy ofChi nese Li terature:FromEarl y Ti m es to the FourteenthCentury( 1965) edi ted byCyri lBi rth al so i ncl uded ei ght poem sof LiQ i ngzhao respecti vel ytransl atedbyC.H .Kw ock,Vi ncentM eH ughandKai —yuHsu.Thanks to Li u W u-chi ’ S An Introducti ontO Chi neseLi terature(1966),thew estemreaders had found anotherw ayto knowfourof Li ’ Spoem stransl atedbyLi u.The secondstagew as the1 970s and the1980s,duri ngw hi ch LiQ i ngzhao’ Sci —poem sw ereful l y i ntroduced.Interest i n LiQ i ngzhao’ Sverse conti nued togrow .Book- l engthstudi es andarti cl essoughtto i ntroduce her del i cateandl yri cal styl epreaders.Sunfl ow er Spl endor:ThreeThousand YearsofChi nesePoetry( 1975) edi tedbyLi u W u—chi andIrvi ng YuchengLocom pi l ed13ci -poem sofLiQ i ngzhaotransl atedbythefam ous schol arEugene Eoyang.Theyconsi dered LiQ i ngzhaoas afi rst-cl asspoetessi n the Chi nesehi story and‘ ' pai dthe m ostscrupul ousattenti ontotheori gi naltexts and i nsi stedupon accuracyas w el lasreadabi l i ty” (Li u&Lo,P.x).A G ol denTreasury ofChi nese Poetry( 1976) byJ ohn Turnerbegantopayattenti on tothe transl ati on theori es that coul dbeappl i edw hentransl ati ngLiQ i ngzhao’ S ci —poem s.In1 979 tw o transl ati on books of herpoem s byKenneth Rexroth andLi ng Chungenti tl ed The O rchi d Boat and LiCh’ i ng-chao:Com pl ete Poem sappeared.TheCol um bi a bookofChi nesepoetry:fromearl yti m es to the thi rteenthcentury( 1984)transl ated and edi tedbyBurton W atson and The Indi anaCom pani ontO Tradi ti onalChi neseLi terature(1 986)edi ted byW i l l i amH .N i enhauser J r.had al so w ri tten aboutLiQ i ngzhao’ S l i fe,her pl acei n Chi nesel i terary hi story, andher status as a fem al epoet.J i aosheng W ang’ S“ Com pl eteCi —Poem s of Li Q i ngzhao:AN ewTransl ati on’ ’publ i shedon Si no—Pl atoni cPapers,N o.13 i n 1989 edi tedbyVi ctor M ai r w as anotherhi gh—qual i tyw ork based on thecom pl ete poem sof LiQ i ngzhao,w hi chcontri buted al ot to the causeoftransl ati ngLi ’ Sci -poem s.The thi rdstage beganfromthe 1990s,duri ngw hi ch schol ars haveexpl oredthedi sti ncti ve fem i ni ne aspectsofLiQ i ngzhao’ s w ri ti ngand how her w orks hadcontri buted to thegenreof Chi neseci -poetryand i nfl uenced l atergenerati ons.TheCol um bi aAnthol ogy ofTradi ti onal Chi neseLi terature(1 994) edi ted byVi ctor M ai r13 andEncycl opedi a ofLi teraryTransl ati ons i ntoEngl i sh(2000)edi tedbyO l i ve Cl assehavepresentedto theEngl i shw orl d a detai l ed i ntroducti on of Li Q i ngzhao’ Slife.Theytri ed to choose thepoem sthat coul dm ostrepresentedLiQ i ngzhao’ Sl i teraryandarti sti c achi evem ents.W om en W }洎:rSof Tradi ti onal Chi na:AnAnthol ogy ofPoetryandCri ti ci sm ( 1 999) edi ted by Kang- ISung Chang and H aunSaussy w asam onographi cbook that dem onstrated thosem ost i nfl uenti al w om enw ri ters,am ongw hi ch Li Q i ngzhao pl ayedan i m portant rol e,w hose 24ci —poem sw ere sel ected.StephenO w enandPaul i neYual so contri buted to the transl ati onstrategi esandstudi es^●’T‘t ' x‘‘●●‘·‘‘ot i m age1n L1U m gzhao7s cz- poem s,gw m ghera11i m portant posi ti onl na.poemstudi es i n N orthAm eri ca.Com paredw i th the ri ch num ber of books andessaysw ri ttenbyw esternschol ars,w e shoul d feel asham ed of 1i ttl e rel evant books accessi bl e i n Chi nam enti oned above.Al thoughit i s no doubt that the w estern i ntroduces LiQ i ngzhao’ s ci —poem stopartl ysati sfy thei r ow n needs of cul turaldi versi ty andpropelthedevel opm entof thei rpoetry, thei r accom pl i shm entsareprom i nent.Thoseschol ars of Chi nese descent w hohave real i zed thei m portanceof transl ati on,i n parti cul ar, havecontri buted a l ot toprom otetradi ti onalChi nesecul turesi n the w estern w orl d.Though there areunavoi dabl em i sunderstandi ngsandm i si nterpretati onsof LiQ i ngzhao’ S ci - poem sm adeby transl ators from theEngl i sh w orl d,i tprovi desU Sw i th brand-newcross-cul turalperspecti ves andl i terarycri ti ci sm tore—i nterpret theseci -poem s.Iti sthrough l earni ng from thei rvi ew poi nt tow ard ci -poem sthat w eCal lenri ch O urcul tures andbetterhel pthemto beappreci atedbythe w hol ew orl d. ChapterTw o An O vervi ewof M ai n Theori esAppl i edi nTransl ati ngCl assi cal Chi nesePoetry2.1 The G eneralPri nci pl esofPoetryTransl ati onSusan Bassnett’ Stheory of‘ ' transpl anti ngtheseed” (Bassnett,58)i s i nspi ri ngi ni ts vi vi dness,w hi ch Can beappl i edtopoetry transl ati on.She cl ai m s that“ thetransl ator starts w i th thel anguagethat thepoet hasfi xed,andthen has to set aboutdi sm antl i ngi t andreassem bl i ngthepartsi n anotherl anguage al together” (Bassnett,66).Shel l ey arguesthat apoemCan betranspl anted.Theseed Can bepl acedi n newsoi l ,fora newpl anttodevel op.Thetask of the transl ator m ust then be to“ determ i neand l ocate that seed and to set about i tstranspl antati on” (Bassnett,58).Concerni ng transl ati ng poetry, thereare fourgeneral pri nci pl esthat al m osteveryschol aror transl atoragreeson.Fi rst ofal l ,i t i s necessary and si gni fi cantthat thetransl ator has agoodcom m and of the cul tures of the sourcel anguageand thetargetl anguage,ands/he shoul di ndul gehi m /hersel f i nreadi ngthe textfi rst.As SusanBassnettpoi nts out,In order to transl atepoetry, thereadi ngof the source text,adetai l edprocessofdecodi ngt11at takes i nto account both textual features and extratextualfactors.(Bassnett,60)fi rststagei si ntel l i gentSecondl y, thetransl ati ons of poetry shoul d ai m atpreservi ngthe fl avor andatm osphereof theori gi nal poem ,SOthat thesetransl ati ons aretrue to thespi ri tof theori gi nal sas Kenneth Rexroth cl ai m s.W henfaci nga di l em m a ofchoosi ngbetw een‘ ' w ord-sti ck andpoem —sti ck” (Li ,63)strategi es,atransl ator m ustgofor thepoem .Thi rdl y, Bassnettbel i eves that a transl ator has a dualresponsi bi l i ty, i naccord w i thEugeneEoyang’ Svi ew poi ntthat“ thetransl atorbecom estw o readers,thedual -perspecti ve reader' ’ (Eoyang,1993,169).Fourthl y, asJ ohn Turner poi nts out,the15 transl ati on ofapoemshoul dat l east read l i ke apoerq.Ifthere i s no such basi ccri teri on,there i s noj udgm ent.Actual l y, thebest transl ati on of cl assi cal Chi nesepoetrym ustprobabl yeschewari gi d approach,rel yi ngnei ther on an“ expl oi tati onofthe exoti c’ ’ nor on the‘ ' natural i zati on of theforei gn' ’ as Eugene Eoyang’Scl ai m s.H em ai ntai ns that‘ ‘ one m ustdem ysti fythe O ther even as one defam i l i ari zes the Sel f' ’(Eoyang,1993,69).Therefore,thefour standards m enti oned above serve as cri teri aforanal yzi ng speci fi c transl ati on versi ons and transl ators’ transl ati onstrategi esi nChapterThree andChapterFour.2.2 School s ofTransl ati ng Ci - PoetryThe Schoolof M etri calVerse i ncl udesnati veEngl i sh speaker such as J ohnTurner, W .J .Fl etcherand dom esti c schol ar XuYuanzhong.J ohnTurner i s theonl yonew ho i nsi sts i ntransl ati ngcl assi cal Chi nesepoetryi nrhym i ngverse.H ei nsi sts i nm aki ngthe transl ati on of apoemread l i ke apoemi tsel f.He al so asserts that a l i teralfai thful ness shoul dgi ve w ayto agreater fi del i tyto therhythm ,w hi chi s of theessence ofpoetry.Xu Yuanzhong,a representati veof dom esti c transl ator w hoputsforw ard hi sw el l —know npri nci pl esof“ Three Beauti es” ( ) ( u,2003,85) ,w hi chi ncl udes‘ ‘ Beautyi nsense’ ’ ,‘ ‘ Beautyi nsound’ ’ and‘ ‘ Beautyi nform ’ ’ .‘ ‘ Beautyi nsense’ ’ m eans the transl ati on shoul d have the sam e em oti onal effect andatm ospherethattheori gi naloneprovi des thereaders;‘ ‘ Beautyi n sound’ ’ refers to the soundeffects causedbythe fi xedm etri cal ,tonal patternsandrhym i ng schem es;“ Beautyi nform ” contai ns the num ber of 1i nes and num ber of characters i n each l i ne,w hi chrequi res that the transl ated verse shoul d be as l ongor short as theori gi nalone.Furtherm ore,Xu Yuanzhonghas beenpracti ci ng hi s pri nci pl esi n hi sci -poemtransl ati ons,w hi chcanbe seen i nthefol l ow i ng chapters.Kenneth Rexroth andYang Xi anyirepresentthe Schoolof FreeVerse.Theyi nsi st thatstubbornl y sti cki ngto the m eter andrhym eof theori gi nal poemw i l li nevi tabl y spoi lthem eani ngandspi ri ti n the transl ated one.Rexroth cl ai m s that atransl ator shoul d begi venm axi m umf reedomSO that he coul di deal l ytransl ate for hi s ow nera.To som eextent,Rexrothhaspai dm ore attenti on to the recreati on of theori gi nal poemrather thanfi del i ty.Chung Li ng,thetransl ator w ho CO —transl ate LiQ i ngzhao’ S ci -poem s、^,i th hi m ,rem arksthat“ Thepow erand beauty ofhi stransl ati ons often l i e i n thepassagesw hi ch he rendered m ost freel yand w hi ch bearl i ttl e resem bl ance to the Chi nesetexts” (Chung,1985,308).O nthecontrary, YangXi anyii s fam ous foradvocati ngfai thful ness and sm oothness i ntransl ati ng poetry.H i stransl ati onsstri ctl y obeythepri nci pl eoffai thful ness,w hi chset hi mas al li m peccabl em odel for other transl ators.D om esti c schol ar W enXi a:di angadvocates the School of Prose.H e created theprose approachto transl ateci -poem ,becausehe bel i eves that l i terarytransl ati on i sre—creati on,notrestrai nedbysurface structure of theori gi nal text.Thus,hetransl ated‘ ‘ Tune:Pri de of Fi sherm en’ ’ i n theprose form .H ow ever, si nce m ostschol ars andtransl atorsagreeon thepri nci pl ethat the transl ati on of apoemshoul d read l i ke apoemi tsel f, w hi ch becom esaw el l —acknow l edged standard,theauthor doesnotadvocate the school ofprose...

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