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Honor A Phenomenology_部分2


内容提示: Affiliated Honor 97the papal coronation included thr ee stops throu ghout the city where thePope-elect would be told, "Sancte Pater, sic transit gloria m und i," while hewas shown a piece of burn ing flax to remind him that honor is fleeting."Th e honored are servant-exemplars of the mass.Honor is social and society requires plurality. An individual apa rt existsand acts, but holds no social value because there is no society." Devia-tion from the mean denotes relativity; in action, excellence is to do what...

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Affiliated Honor 97the papal coronation included thr ee stops throu ghout the city where thePope-elect would be told, "Sancte Pater, sic transit gloria m und i," while hewas shown a piece of burn ing flax to remind him that honor is fleeting."Th e honored are servant-exemplars of the mass.Honor is social and society requires plurality. An individual apa rt existsand acts, but holds no social value because there is no society." Devia-tion from the mean denotes relativity; in action, excellence is to do whatothers do, bur to do it b ett er, Com parisons are carried out according toa rubr ic by which instances can be measured. Social reality is constantlybeing imagined, constructed, and reconsidered by the individuals (excellentand common) who form the society. Individual distinction and the realiza-tion of the self's will made manifest is balanced against the reliance of theindividual on the gro up that has so honored him or her." The greatnessof the individual members is celebrated by the group because said actionselevate the social position of the gro up vis-a-vis its peers. The group is acollective whereby every member's deeds are incorpor ated to represent theunified will of the gro up. An ythin g that a member can do, the gro up cando; everything that members do, the gro up does. Th e commun ion of mem-bers allows individuality to be expressed by collectively hon oring the excel-lent; excellence is only experienced by individuals in relation to their group.As Badiou states, each individual is a unique instantiation of being thatresonates with others included in the set (group) which itself is included ina l ar ger set within the ontology of infinite multiplicity."VALUING TH E FOLLOWERIt seems inconceivable that honor wou ld remain an imp ort ant facet of socialreality if so few people ever experienced it. By examining honor as a cat-egory of related processes that f orm social relations based upon value, theremust be a process that binds the individual members of a gro up togethersuch that they form a singularity that can itself perf orm social relationswith others. Affiliated honor is the process whereby individuals gain socialvalue f rom their membership in gro ups that gain honor at the ne xt levelof analytical abstraction for the actions of its members. Th e honor of thegro up coalesces throu ghout its members who have successfully m aint ainedface with the gro up and their ability to identify with that group as an honor-peer ." Affiliated honor enhances the esteem of group members vis-a-vis themembers of groups that are honor-peers to the group in question.Groups can compete'in honor-systems vis-a-vis each oth er as corporateentities. Th e key is to have defined standards that can determine inclu-sion and exclusion. The Concert of Europe not only balanced power, butalso m aint ained a status quo of peerage where the princes of Europe ledeither powers or Great Powers which were defined, and, according to thefinal act of the Vienna Congress, unalterable. .1! Such peerage exists today 98 Honor: A Phenomenologyinternationally in the United Nations where the five permanent membersof the Security Council enjoy a privileged position as first among equals toall other U.N. member-states. The basic premise shown here is no differentthan in NCAA football where six athletic conference champions enjoy thedesignation as elite Automatic Qualifying (major institutions), and five areNon-automatic Qualifying (mid-major) conferences. In fact, the only trueNietzschean blonde beast is Notre Dame which maintains independent sta-tus from any BCS conference, but has a unique automatic-qualifier statuswithin the BCS system.The less exceptional people are, the more reliant they are on their groupsto provide them with distinct social value and thus to impart meaning totheir life. Speier takes note of this: "every pitiable fool who has nothing tobe proud of snatches at the last straw of being proud of the nation to whichhe accidentally belongs.v" Individuality is achieved even for the unexcep-tional because of the unique patterns of membership and affiliation thateach person weaves." It is highly unlikely for two persons to have the samerelational identities with the same groups in every instance. Because societyis co -constituted and individuals form a unique intersectionality of identi-ties, they can be members of groups that occasionally compete against eachother.:" During such times of conflict, the conflicted member can choose toaffiliate with one of their membership as they desire in order to maximizethe social benefit and minimize the social detriment.Individual affiliation with groups for honor is not new. Sporting eventshave reflected this social fact for more than a thousand years, dating backto at least Byzantium. In Constantinople, members of the Greens and Bluesleeched honor through affiliation with their chosen demes, eventually turn-ing the cheering section of a sporting event into de facto political parties.Honor by affiliation is incredibly important for maintaining morale andsocial cohesion. The more honor is derived through a particular affiliation,the more individuals will value this affiliation above others in their socialreality. The more that individuals value an affiliation, the more likely theywill be to internalize the value system of the group into their ontologywhere it will be reflected in their proceptive direction."Nietzsche is half correct when he asserts that common individuals donot truly live and are not if they fail to realize their will made manifest toshape the world. His argument too easily constructs a world where youeither shape the world or are filled with ressentiment (or resentment) forfailing to do so. He has failed to account for a group that is arguably largerthan either those who lead or those filled with self-loathing: the follower.The group provides a mechanism by which individuals can find some formof peace within their social reality by following.Followers may derive a feeling of self-worth and social value by internal-izing the value system of their group(s) into their ontology and essentiallybeing a reflection of the group writ large. Overt actions of affiliation aredemonstrated by individuals who are seeking to close the distance between Affiliated Honor 99a p art icular membership and their public identity. The use of br and s, trade-m ark s unique to a p art icular organization, are worn as symbols of alle-giance: fraternities may literally br and their pledges, soldiers t att oo theirsqua dro n insignia on their arms, and sports fans wear the jersey of theirfavorite player on their favorite team. .16Research on organizational based self-esteem has established a hier ar chyof concepts in the devel opm ent of positive self-valuation within the socialsphere: global self-esteem, role-specific self-esteem, and task- or situation-specific self esteem. .17 Self esteem is generally defined as "an attitude ofapproval or disapproval of self; it is a personal evaluation reflecting whatpeople think of themselves as individuals; it indicates the extent to whichindividuals believe themselves to be capable, reflecting a personal judgm entof worthiness.":" High self esteem is generally seen to correspond to highlevels of productivity (qualitative and/or quantit ative) in a mutu ally sup-p ortin g relationship ."Research in organizational management suggests that a caring valuesystem-centered on fulfilling employees' needs and attend ing to employ-ees' best interests-can be expected to shape organizational practices,pro grams, and managerial behavi or s so that the various f airn ess stan-dards employees use are met over a range of fairness domains (such asrew ard s and punishments, formal pro c edur es, and inf orm al int erp er-sonal tre atm ent) and organizational issues ."Or ganization f airn ess indicators are reflections of the honor-codes thatindividual members use to accurately judge their social relationship tothat gro up. Transp ar ent systems that are consistent are prized by members"because experienced fairness is a highly salient indi cator of an individual'sstatus in, and therefore value to, an organization.'?" An individual's iden-tity within a group motivates "a person to act or refrain from acting in agiven case.'?"Unfair and opaque value systems are difficult for members to navigate andresult in a lack of consistent direction because any action mi ght bring shame,and thus being desi gnat ed as exceptional is more dangerous than remainingc omm on. Lack of consistency thr eatens continuity and thus the survival ofthe community ." Maintaining continuity in standards is a f ound ational rea-son for the elevation of the exceptional member from the community as anexemplar. The exemplar must come from the common s so that their examplemotivates the mass. The individual and the community are one; a ffi liatedhonor is the m ort ar that socially binds individuals to one anoth er, forming acollective, corporate entity with a singular proceptive direction." 9 Glory"In the future, everyone will be world-famous for 15 minut es."!FAMEFame is often discussed in tr eatm ents of honor either as a concept withinits category or as its own distinct, though related, social phenomenon. Itwould not be unfair , because of this divergence, to perceive fame as anoth ersocial phenom enon that suffers from a lack of precision within both every-day discourse and lit erature within the social sciences. Within the literatureit is possible to tease out that specificity.Speier takes great pains to state that honor is not fame and to showhow h onor and fame are distinct. Fame is a fundamental fact of a socialgroup and "E very social structure has its procl aim ers of fame."? Fame is asocial phenom enon with individual distinction being borne by the famousand infamous, but bearing a valueless distinction. He writes, "Fame doesnot establish di stin ctions of r ank . in contr ast to honor it is not bestowedor observed, but only spread.":' Current social n orm s in the United Statesmay blur the lines written by Speier as the famous are honored for no oth erreason than because they ar e famous.'Adair sees fame as a mot ivating force that guided the Ameri can found-ing f ath ers, who were "pas sionately selfish and self-interested men," intoacting in "public service and the promotion of the comm onw ealth as ameans to gain glory.'" Joann e Freeman tak es this example to a higher level.She emphasizes that the founding f ath ers knew of the unique opportunityfor precedential honor that they enjoyed:The most glorious accomplishment of all, of course, was to found anation. Understood in thiscontext, national politics presented an unp ar -alleled opp ortun ity to earn reputation of the loftiest kind. As BenjaminRush explained to John Adams, "We live in an import ant era and in anew country. Mu ch good may be done by individuals, and t hat too ina short time." A national politician could bolster his reputation to anunpr ecedented degree, perhaps garnering even world recognition."The world was watching the American experiment and , thu s, fame wasg uara nteed. Th e interpretation of one's greatness was, theref or e, in many Gl ory 101h and s-th e r eput ation of b oth individual m emb ers and the coll ect ive gro upwas do om ed to be transc end ent- and led m an y early Americ an politici an sto act in the best interests of the fledgling union and thereby derive b othaffiliated hon or and ind ividual recogni tion co mme nsurate with the idealexpectations of public se rva nts,"H alb er stam exa mines f am e as a produ ct of one's relati on to the groupin whi ch one's r eput ation circulates. Th e ind ividual f ounding fathersknew that they were to be judged on their gove rn ance and thu s culti vatedit. Th e f ount of reco gnition f orm s the basis of judgment within one' s cir-cle of fame:Th e n atur e of the f am e a person possesses is d eterm ined by that aspectby which he or she is recognized: in the case of m od els it may be theirfaces but n ot their n am es, and with writers their names but not theirfaces. In all cases, however, one cannot just be f am ous . . . one must bef amou s for some rea son or other ... xTh is statement seems to be outd ated in toda y's society where Warhol sug-gests everyone will enjoy fifteen minutes of f am e. How ever, f ame itself iscele bra ted in 21 st c entury U.S. cultur e and careers can begin when amat eurmedia goes viral."B rau dy's exa mination of fame suggests its occu rre nce as a social phe-nomen on that develops out of the general recognition of ce rta in presti-gious hon or- groups within a society." He shows honor as a catalyst th athas tr an sform ed from the desire to be unique to the desire to merely beaccepted. He shows that fame begins where the communal aspects of lifeend; his argument suggests th at the d eclar ation of authorship tr an sforms apers on' s ability to be recognized (even if it is only as a name) outside one'spers onal impact." He asse rts that f ame alon e proves to be empty becausethe person's r eput ation leaves his or her own grasp and "the audience picksout its ow n de ar qualities in the individuality of its heroes."12To be famous, then, is to be capable of individuality and to have a namein the mass of society. Schneider suggests that gaining f am e is directlylink ed to opp ortun ity. He writes, "the prop orti onate number of eminentmen p rodu ced by any one social class or occupational gro up is limit ed bythe historical circumstances pres ent at an y given tim e."!' He focuses on thenumb er of people to achieve fame in certain tim e per iods and notes thatthese are connected with expansion and the d oin g of deeds that would havebeen don e by someone, but were done, or at least att empt ed, by thos e whow ould be known by the public sui generis while they were d oin g them."In this token, Fame comes to some professions through cultivation and lackof competition. There can (usually) only be one emperor in Rome at a giventim e and that emperor can choose to place his face on the coinage so that hecan- litera lly-gai n public recognition through out his domain. Similarly, if atelevision show is premised on taking seven strangers and throwing them in ahouse so as to view life as it really is, or at least appears to be, the seven people 102 Honor: A Phenomenologywho are chosen will gain fame through recognition by that show. Reducingfame to numerics is an oversimplification, but it does express that there are anumber of individuals, notably politicians and ente rta iners, whose everydayactions will beplaced on public display because ofthe n atur e oftheir actions."Famous figures expose themselves to the judgment of the public according totheir values; unless a value is already attached to the fi gur es such that they arean honored exemplar, their reputation is at the mercy of the masses."CELEBRITYWi thin the present argument, fame does not meet the criteria for being aconcept of honor be cau se it does not represent a process of inscribing socialvalue onto an individual. Fame is a phenomenon of social awareness, thee xt ent to which an individual's reputation has spread, but it is not an activeobservation. Halber stam explicitly articulates the difference:fame, in its widest sense, amounts to being well known , widely recog-nized, an object of public int erest. Someone can, of cour se, be famouswithin a restricted domain, within a given prof ession say,but thisshouldnot be c onfu sed with prof essional success, esteem or distinction. I?Although fame usually includes a positive connotation of reputation (theobverse of which would be infamy), the spin is an insuffici ent cause to addfame as a concept of honor because it does not include an active p arti cipa-tion on behalf of the commons. It provides the bound aries to which anindividual's reputation has spread and honor may be observed, but it doesnot increase his or her social position vis-a-vis peers unless fame itself isvalued within a given society. IS Fame is an awareness of a person, but doesnot include an observation of his or her merits or social value good or ill.When fame p air s with hon or, however, it produces two concepts basedupon the positive and ne gat ive valuations of the a tt ributes represented bythe famous exemplar: celebrity and notoriety. J ar zombek traces the use ofcelebrity to the Roman era, "Ce lebriras (from Celebris, me anin g "numer-ous") referred to the n umb er of times the name of a famous person wasspoken" and suggests that to be celebrated was not only to be known, butalso to be worthy of public reflection. " In b oth cases, the reputation ofeach individual has spread such that they are active exemplars to a wideaudience. The exemplary status is cultivated by the sovereign authority ofgro ups who seek to shape the int erpr etation of that particul ar value withina society." Allen and Parsons explain this process:Cultural consecration can be viewed as the most definitive f orm ofcultural valorization (Corse and Gri ffi n 1997; Lamont 1987). Specifi-cally, it is the attempt by a gro up or organization to impose a dur able Gl ory 103symbolic distinction b etw een those objects and individuals worthy ofveneration as exemplars of excellence within a field of cultural p rodu c-tion and those that are nor. In sho rt, consecration asserts that onlyce rta in objects and individuals are "great," and, by implication, thatall others are not. As a general rule, consecration projects are initiatedby gro ups or organizations within the field of cultural production forthe purpose of establishing its legitimacy."Here we find the corpo rate reflexivity within the process of honor. Groupsestablish legitimacy by cultivating iconic exemplars of a value that theyseek to promote. Should their vision gain a footing in society, the gro upbecomes recognized as the authority on that value because their honorthat they es tab lish be com es the iconic honor f or that value. For instance,there are many awar ds for acting, but the iconic aw ard s are the Oscars,the Emmys, and the Tonys for movie, televisi on, and stage productions,respectively. The authorities who have established these awards promotethe legitimacy of their authority by prom otin g the excellence of individualswithin the field of acting. Similarly, publishing in certain academic j ourn alsis suggestive of a ce rta in level of writing caliber or ability simply because ofthe cultivated reputation of the journal.Individuals who win an iconic award or publish in the flagship j ourn algain recognition and prestige. Th ese individual achievements are exceededby individuals who repeatedly win iconic awa rds or publish in the flagshipj ourn al. Their actions ar e heralded by the cult ura l authority and are shownas examples of greatness. Furth ermore, the more that an iconic awar d isgiven to one individual, the less likely another can achieve it, increasing its......++In-GroupValuationOut-Group....Figure 9.1 Nor mative interaction effects between honor and fame . 104 Honor: A Phenomenologyrarity and thus its status as a symbol of prestige. Individuals are celebratedbecause mere association with them is indicative of proximity to the idealvalue that they represent.Lilti examines the modern use of celebrity as a social phenomenon andtraces its use to the 18 th century :In French, the word celebrite ... has been in frequent use since thesecond half of the eighteenth century and the Frantext lexical data-base reveals a historical peak during the decades 1760-80 ... . Nico-las Chamfort coins this definition of celebrity: "the privilege of beingknown by people who don't know you," stressing the essential distinc-tion between reputation-in small networks of mutual acquaintance-and celebrity. Celebrity, thus, can be defined as a [social phenomenon]in which a person is well known, during his lifetime, by people whodon't know him personally but who may identify with him . 22Celebrity extends beyond reputation-beyond the direct impact of theindividual's geographic or professional stomping grounds. However, it isencapsulated by temporality. Celebrity suggests that a person is not onlydistinguished as an individual in a wide area (fame), but also that the indi-vidual is connected to a value that is normatively associated as good orbad. However, when these people die and those whom they have directlyimpacted die, their celebrity ceases to be. They do not leave a lasting impres-sion because their celebrity merely reflected a value that is transferable toanother exemplar.GLORYCelebrity can transcend the situated position of the individuals being cel-ebrated such that they experience a level of renown that extends beyonddirect impact in time and space. This celebrity is the result of an infiniteperfection: an act that is exemplary for its prestige in an absolute sense.P Icall this transcendent form "glory" precisely because of its use in monothe-ism and war. 24 Palmer's dissection of Pericles's speeches shows a focus onthree forms of glory: the men, the women, and the state. Masculine glorywas to be achieved through the willful acceptance of physical annihilationin battle; sacrificing the self in public service." Feminine glory is achievedthrough the quiet sacrifice of losing her husband and/or sons tradition-ally, the primary bread-winner(s) of the family unit.:" These combined, forPericles, to produce an environment where the state could achieve glory,"whose public goal is the real universality of the Athenian empire.Y" Ath-ens achieves glory through the creation of an empire that promulgates itsvalues and establishes them as normal. Gl ory 105Sessions examines the hon or ofseveral different groups to show the ubiq-uity of glory in his chapter on w arrior s. When writing on why one becomesa warrior, he suggests, "the non-material rew ard s warri ors so often receivefrom socie ty" including "glory," which he emphasizes within the texr.l" Hegoes on to suggestThey are par adigmatically courageous, putting their very lives on theline for some higher good ... .They focus on their vocation in ways ordi-nary folk often can only admir e, and their discipline and perseverancein pursuit of goals are attractive to man y. Th ey tran scend themselves notonly in their results, but also in their actions, tr an smuting not only theirreputations but also their souls into the higher stuff of honor. 2~To join an honor group where the nature of the group is to live by a cod eof c onduct is an acceptance and internalization of face. To join an hon orgroup where the group hones a specific set of skills is to willingly accepta position as an exemplar and to personify prestige. To test those skillsagainst other exemplars, where the end result of the test is pot ential annihi -lation, is to act on behalf of a group where victory for the warrior is victoryfor the group, allowing the group to gain distinction throu gh affiliationwith the individuals who make up the warrior peer group.To sacrifice the self for the sake of the group as a profession pro videssuch a high level of distinction because it requires a continual sacrifice ofthe self willingly. Plato embraces this level of c ommitment in his descriptionof timo cracy in The Republic. He has Socrates explain:In the timocr acy and the timocratic man the constituti on, whether ofthe State or of the individual, is based, first, upon coura ge, and sec-ond ly, upon the love of honour; this latter virtue, which is hardly tobe esteemed a virtue, has superseded all the rest. . .. timocracy (thegovernment of honour) arises out of aristocracy (the government of thebest). .10In Pl ato 's ideal f orm of government, the Philos oph er-King is motivated bygoodness rath er than by hon or, m ater ial gain, or power. The people aredivided into thr ee social classes:guardians, auxiliaries, and producers. Th eguardians rule with conviction for the good of the people and hold thehighest honor. Th e auxiliaries enforce the rule of the guardian s as a mili-t ary class and m aintain the civil obedience to the republic. Th e prod ucersspecialize in their trade for the good of the society and obey their philoso-pher-king guardians as followers who will reap benefit from just rule andcontributing material wealth to the state. .1 1 All members of the state existedas servants to the state in their own specialized prof essions. Pl ato sought toget bey ond honor by promotin g an ideal. Aristotle would emphasize that 106 Honor: A Phenomenologyhonor and all other virtues would be attained through moderation and thatthis would result in the good life that Plato's ideal republic embodied.FAdair also explores the elevated position of glory in his description of thefounding of the United States: "If they succeeded, they were to be immor-talized; their names were to be transferred to counties and cities, and riversand mountains; and to be revered and sung, and toasted through all time."33Abraham Lincoln noted that to strive after such distinction-to establishprecedence with a new form of government-would only achieve immortal-ity if it was successful and stood the test of time; glory requires that the actecho throughout history." The absolute character of creation and annihila-tion provides the foundation for acts that can be considered glorious.The glory of the founders of the United States stems from their uniqueposition as founders. The act of founding is creative and can only be doneonce. This can be seen in Freeman's examination of the United StatesCongress which was viewed with disappointment by the politicians of theAmerican Revolution:the roughly one hundred men assembled in the national capital werenone too impressive. "The appointments in general are not so good,"thought Georgia Representative Abraham Baldwin; the members wereless "heroic" than those in previous congresses, agreed MassachusettsRepresentative Fisher Ames."This impression is common in comparing the young to the old, the ignorantto the veteran, and the untested to the already successful. The new bloodcannot compare to their predecessors because they will always owe theirpredecessors for providing them with the ability to exist as they are.Nietzsche laments the debts owed to the founders because of the distinc-tion they gain by their creative acts.The conviction reigns that it is only through the sacrifices and accom-plishments of the ancestors that the tribe exists-and that one has topay them back with sacrifices and accomplishments: one thus recog-nizes the debt that constantly grows greater, since these forebears nevercease, in their continued existence as powerful spirits, to accord thetribe new advantages and new strengths .. .. in the end the ancestormust necessarily be transfigured into a god."There is an unfair quality about glory because there is always a socialrequirement for the observation of the honor for the act even if the act isnot well understood or documented. What Nietzsche is getting at is thatthe members of a group owe a debt of honor to their ancestors for provid-ing them with the foundation that makes the mere existence of the grouppossible. Therefore any act that the group achieves, including the acts done Gl ory 107in honor to the f ound ers, is possible only because of the founders, and sothe debt increases.Creation is not the only absolute form of action nor is it the only p athto attain glory. The other p ath to tread is through annihilation, often withthe vanquishing of foes. The great sagas in history, fable, and legend con-tain instances of men seeking glory through heroism in battle. Perseus slewMedusa, Achilles slew Hector, Beowulf slew the wyrm, and so on. Becausethe slain can not be killed again, only the first individual to do so can claimsuch distinction. Such glory can be achieved, as indicated by Pericles, withlegen dary sacrifice such as was exhibited by the 300 Spa rta ns at Th errnopy-lae. Glorified acts are transformed by their inscribed meaning and gainmyth ic qualities. The reality of the mund ane beings whose actions exem-plify an ideal could never live up to the needs of a society pushing towardgreatness and fueled by an inf eri orit y complex driven by ancestral debt.Fame is not honor, but when these two social phenomena combine, theyreinforce each other and allow individual actions to influence individualsout side their impact on both time and space. Some qualities are timelessand universal and some actions can always be used as glorious examples ofthose qualities in societies that value them.ACHILLES'S CONUNDRUMGlory lies at the he art of the Iliad in Achilles's decision to ret urn to the war.Achilles is tormented by his h and in the de ath of his friend, Patroclus: "howcan I rejoice?My friend is dead, / Patroclus, my dearest friend of all. I lovedhim, / And I killed him.":" The initial problematic of the Ili ad , Achilles'sfeud with Agamemnon, led Achilles to beg his m oth er to entreat Zeus (heowed her a favor) to remember his fate:Mother, since you bore me for a s hort life only, / Olympian Zeus wassupposed to grant me honor. / Well, he hasn't given me any at all.Agamemnon / Has taken away my prize and dishonored me. .. . Hemthe Greeks in between the fleet and the sea. / On ce they start beingkilled, the Greeks may / Appreciate Agamemnon for what he is, / Andthe wide-ruling son of Atreus will see / What a fool he's been becausehe did not honor / Th e best of all fighting Achaeans. JgThetis accepts her son's will with tears and foreshadowing. "0 , my poorchild. I bore you for sorrow, / Nur sed you for grief. . . . Since life is short foryou, all too brief. Now you're destined for b oth an early de ath / And miserybey ond compare. It was for this / I gave birth to you in your f ath er's palace/ Under an evil star.":" Achilles's desire to turn his dishonor into Agamem-non's shame comes at a steep price: the de ath of Patroclus. 108 Honor: A PhenomenologyAchilles' guilt wracks him with a multitude of passions. He is not onlyashamed of himself for allowing his selfishness to lead to his friend's death,but also saddened by the loss and enraged at Hector and the Trojans fortaking Patroclus's life. Thetis comes to her son to assuage his torment, ask-ing why he is lamenting at the moment of his triumph. She reminds him"Zeus has granted your prayer. The Greeks / Have all been beaten back totheir ships / And suffered horribly. They can't do without yoU."4 0But Achil-les is no longer concerned with his feud with Agamemnon. His concernsbecome existential.Achilles diminishes the importance of his corporeal form that containshis material existence. His fuming turns to depression and he responds toThetis, "You will never again / Welcome me home, since I no longer havethe will / To remain alive among men, not unless Hector / Loses his life onthe point of my spear / And pay for despoiling Menoetius' son."?' Thetisresponds with her own sorrow, "I won't have you with me for long, mychild, / If you say such things. Hector's death means yours.l'" Thetis isreminding her son that Achilles is doomed to die after Hector. His life iseither to be long on the earth, but without renown, or short and bright andhis name will be remembered in glory for all time.Achilles responds not with passion, but with an acceptance of his dutiesthat bind him by honor as described by Sarpedon earlier. He accepts hisrole as hero and champion, a role he has long neglected:let me die now. I was no help / To him when he was killed out there.He died / Far from home, and he needed me to protect him. / But now,since I'm not going home, and wasn't / A light for Patroclus or any ofthe rest / Of my friends who have been beaten by Hector, / But justsquatted by my ships, a dead weight on the earth .. . / I stand alonein the whole Greek army / When it comes to war-though some dospeak better. / I wish all strife could stop, among gods / And amongmen, and anger too-it sends / Sensible men into fits of temper, / Itdrips down our throats sweeter than honey / And mushrooms up inour bellies like smoke. / Yes, the warlord Agamemnon angered me. /But we'll let that be, no matter how it hurts, / And conquer our pride,because we must. / But I'm going now to find the man who destroyed /My beloved-s-Hector ."With regard to the his conundrum, Achilles accepts that his fate is not hisown. His role as hero and champion comes at a price of self-sacrifice andfighting on the front lines of battle. His desires for what he wants the worldto be fall on deaf ears, much as Arjuna's desire not to slay his relatives fellon the deaf ears of Krishna.r'Achilles must act . In order for Achilles to beAchilles, he must fight to ...