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Dog Sense How the New Science of Dog Behavior Can Make You A Better Friend to Yo.


内容提示: 6.25 x 9.5”S: 1-1/8”B: 7/8”BASICHC4/COLOR+PMS 8001 metallicFINISH:matte polyDog Senseh o w t h e n e w s c i e n c e o fJohn Bradshawd o g b e h av i o r c a n m a k e yo u ab e t t e r f r i e n d t o yo u r p e tJohn Bradshaw is Foundation Director of the Anthrozoology Institute at the University of Bristol, where he was previously the University Research Theme Leader for Animal Welfare and Behaviour. His current research partners include the charities Medical Detection Dogs, the Royal So...

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6.25 x 9.5”S: 1-1/8”B: 7/8”BASICHC4/COLOR+PMS 8001 metallicFINISH:matte polyDog Senseh o w t h e n e w s c i e n c e o fJohn Bradshawd o g b e h av i o r c a n m a k e yo u ab e t t e r f r i e n d t o yo u r p e tJohn Bradshaw is Foundation Director of the Anthrozoology Institute at the University of Bristol, where he was previously the University Research Theme Leader for Animal Welfare and Behaviour. His current research partners include the charities Medical Detection Dogs, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and Dogs Trust. Prior to joining the University of Bristol in 2003, Bradshaw founded the Anthrozoology Institute at the University of Southampton. He lives in Southampton, England.Bradshaw Dog Senseh o w t h e n e w s c i e n c e o fd o g b e h av i o r c a n m a k e yo u ab e t t e r f r i e n d t o yo u r p e tA Member of the Perseus Books Groupwww.basicbooks.comISBN 978-0-465-01944-19 7 8 0 4 6 5 0 1 9 4 4 15 2 5 9 9$25.99 US / $29.95 CANPETSDdogs worked for their living, and were bred to be healthy and hard working as well as companionable. But in the course ogs have been “man’s best friend” for tens of thousands of years. But despite their valuable role in our lives, dogs today fnd themselves in a state of crisis throughout the Western world. A century ago most of a few decades, many of those carefully selected attributes became obsolete, and nowadays we breed dogs more for their looks than for their health or suitability as pets. What’s more, we too often treat dogs like wolves or, just as hazardously, like furry humans. The truth is: dogs are neither.What dogs really need is a spokesperson, someone who will assert their rights, gripes, and specifc needs. In Dog Sense, animal behavior and welfare expert John Bradshaw does just this, using groundbreaking research into human–animal interactions to show us the world from a dog’s perspective. Bradshaw debunks a range of popular dog advice, explaining that, far from being domesticated wolves driven by a need for dominance, dogs are unique creatures that have evolved to socialize—and live in harmony—with other species, most notably our own. Knowing this, we have fundamental responsibilities to our dogs: to respect and accommodate their anatomical and psychological nuances, to breed them with their own welfare in mind, and to treat them with more understanding than widely held—and counterproductive—dominance-based training theories allow.Eloquent, humane, and flled with valuable advice, Dog Sense aims to appeal as much to dog owners as it does to those interested in understanding the latest science of animal behavior. A penetrating work by a renowned scientist and dog advocate, it is a must-read for any dog lover. $25.99 US / $29.95 CANJacket design by Nicole CaputoJacket photograph © Lucía Ultrasónica / Getty05/11© Alan Peters“A lovely and clear-headed book on all things dog—emotion, mind, and breed. John Bradshaw’s authority and experience are matched by the thoughtfulness and humanity of his writing. Read this before you bring a dog into your life.” —Al e xAn drA H o ro wi tz , author of Inside of a Dog “Every so often we are reintroduced to an old friend, and we may see them in a new light, reinvigorating a long-standing relationship. John Bradshaw reintroduces us to mankind’s oldest friend, the dog. He compiles and explains new information on the origin of dogs, their relationship with ancestral wolves, and why we need to base our relationship with dogs on partnership and cooperation, not outmoded theories about dominance. Dogs and dog lovers alike will beneft from Bradshaw’s insight.” —S te p H e n z Awi S to wS ki , p h d, C AAB , ASpCA Science AdvisorA renowned animal scientist offers some important—and unconventional—revelations about how to improve dogs’ welfare:Don’t be an “alpha.” Trying to control dogs by acting dominant will just frighten them. Understand your dog’s emotional limitations. The latest research suggests that dogs can feel love but not guilt. Avoid punishment. As a general rule, positive reinforcement is the best way to control a dog’s behavior.Respect your dog’s senses. Dogs have extremely sensitive ears and noses, and intense stimuli can make them miserable. Look beyond breed. Personality and trainability should be the priorities when selecting a pet. Teach your dog to cope with being left alone. Dogs are emotionally dependent upon humans and can become distressed without us.•••••• Dog Sense978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page i 978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page ii Dog SenseHOW THE NEW SCIENCE OF DOG BEHAVIOR CAN MAKE YOU A BETTER FRIEND TO YOUR PETJohn BradshawNew York978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page iii Copyright © 2011 by John BradshawPublished by Basic Books,A Member of the Perseus Books GroupAll rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book maybe reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the caseof brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. For information, addressBasic Books, 387 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10016-8810.Books published by Basic Books are available at special discounts for bulk purchases inthe United States by corporations, institutions, and other organizations. For moreinformation, please contact the Special Markets Department at the Perseus Books Group,2300 Chestnut Street, Suite 200, Philadelphia, PA 19103, or call (800) 810-4145, ext.5000, or e-mail special.markets@perseusbooks.com.Designed by Trish WilkinsonSet in 11 point Goudy Old StyleLibrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataBradshaw, John, 1950–Dog sense : how the new science of dog behavior can make you a better friend toyour pet / John Bradshaw.p. cm.ISBN 978-0-465-01944-1 (hardback)—ISBN 978-0-465-02348-6 (e-book) 1. Dogs—Behavior. 2. Dogs—Psychology. 3. Animal intelligence. 4. Human-animal relationships. I. Title.SF433.B73 2011636.7'0887—dc22201005433710 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page iv To Alexis(1970–1984), a Real Dog978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page v 978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page vi ContentsPrefaceAcknowledgmentsIntroductionixxiiixviiCHAPTER 1Where Dogs Came From1CHAPTER 2How Wolves Became Dogs29CHAPTER 3Why Dogs Were—Unfortunately—Turned Back into Wolves67CHAPTER 4Sticks or Carrots? The Science of Dog Training95CHAPTER 5How Puppies Become Pets122CHAPTER 6Does Your Dog Love You?148CHAPTER 7Canine Brainpower181CHAPTER 8Emotional (Un)sophistication211CHAPTER 9A World of Smells225CHAPTER 1 0Problems with Pedigrees252CHAPTER 1 1Dogs and the Future277NotesFurther ReadingIndex293311313vii978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page vii Ginger978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page viii PrefaceTthe early twentieth century, only a few generations removed from hisworking forebears. Ginger had died long before I was born, and I grewup in a pet-free household; stories about Ginger were, for a while, thenearest I came to having a dog of my own.My grandfather, an architect, liked to walk. He walked to and fromhis office in the industrial city of Bradford and to and from the churchesand mill buildings he specialized in; but especially he walked for recre-ation, whether in the Yorkshire moors or in the Lake District or inSnowdonia. Whenever he could, he took Ginger with him. The familymaintained that Ginger, who was taller than he should have been forhis breed, had acquired his longer-than-average legs through all this ex-ercise. Actually, in the photographs I have of him he looks quite typicalof his breed, and not unlike the Cairn chosen to play Toto in the 1939movie The Wizard of Oz. It was not until much later on, when I becameprofessionally interested in pedigree dogs, that I was struck by howmuch the breed had changed over the intervening decades, includingbecoming significantly shorter in the leg. I doubt many modern Cairnswould enjoy the amounts of exercise that my grandfather evidently rel-ished, although Cairns today are less prone to inherited diseases thanmany other breeds are.he first dog I became attached to was one I never met. He was mygrandfather’s Cairn terrier, Ginger—a typical long-legged Cairn ofix978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page ix Ginger was a genuine Yorkshire “character,” and the family had afund of stories about him, but what amazed me the most was the free-dom he had been given, even though he lived within sight of the citycenter. Every lunchtime, when my grandfather was at work, Ginger wasallowed to take himself for a walk around the neighborhood. Appar-ently he had a routine. First he would cross the road into Lister Park,where he would sniff lampposts, interact with other dogs, and, in sum-mer, try to persuade the occupants of the park benches to part with oneof their sandwiches. Then he would cross the tram tracks on Manning-ham Lane and amble to the rear of the fish and chip shop, where ascratch at the back door would usually elicit a handful of scraps of batterand some misshapen chips. Then he usually headed straight for home,which involved crossing a busy junction. Here, according to family leg-end, there was usually a policeman, directing the lunchtime traffic, whowould solemnly stop the cars to allow Ginger safe passage across.I’ve not been to Bradford for many years, but if other cities are any-thing to go by, Lister Park is probably now ringed with poop-bins, mostof the dogs walked there are at the end of a leash, and the Bradford dog-wardens are called out to catch any dog that routinely roams the park,let alone the nearby streets. The trams are long gone, of course, and traf-fic lights have replaced policemen on point duty, but I doubt that one oftoday’s body-armored community support officers would dare to stop acar to allow a small brown terrier to cross the road, even if he or shewanted to.Seventy-odd years have passed since Ginger was allowed to roamthe streets and charm his way into the affections of everyone he met,including the local law enforcement officers. During that same period,almost unnoticed, there have been enormous changes in society’s atti-tudes toward man’s best friend.Such attitudes were still quite relaxed when I was growing up in1970s’ Britain. My first dog, a Labrador/Jack Russell cross named Alexis,was also a roamer, although he was more interested in the opposite sexthan in lunchtime snacks. Despite our best efforts to keep him in sight hewould manage to get away once in a while, and so, unlike Ginger, he didend up in police kennels a few times (in those days the police in the UKstill had responsibility for stray dogs). But no one seemed to mind much.xPreface978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page x Nowadays such tolerance of dogs and their ways is hard to find, especiallyin cities, and dog ownership is showing signs of retreating to its roots inthe countryside. After many millennia in which the dog has been man’sclosest animal companion, cats are taking over as the most popular pet inmany countries, including the United States. Why is this happening?First of all, dogs are expected to be much better controlled than theyused to be. There has never been a shortage of experts telling ownershow to take charge of their dogs. When I took on my second dog, aLabrador/Airedale terrier cross named Ivan, I was determined that hewould be better behaved than Alexis. I decided I ought to find out some-thing about training but was then shocked to discover the approachadopted by the trainers of the day, such as Barbara Woodhouse, whoseemed to see the dog as something that needed to be dominated at alltimes. This simply didn’t make sense to me—the whole point of havingdogs as pets was for them to become friends, not slaves. As I researched, Ifound that this approach to training had stemmed from the ideas of Colonel Konrad Most, a police officer and a pioneer in dog trainingwho, more than one hundred years ago, had decided that a man couldcontrol a dog only if the dog was convinced that the man was physicallysuperior. He derived this idea from contemporary biologists’ accounts ofwild wolf packs, which at that time were considered to be controlled byone individual who ruled the others through fear. Biology, by then myprofession, seemed to be at odds with my gut feeling as to how my rela-tionship with my dogs ought to work.To my relief, this dilemma has resolved itself over the past decade.The wolf pack, always the touchstone for the interpretation of dog be-havior, is now known to be a harmonious family group except when hu-man intervention renders it dysfunctional. As a consequence, the mostenlightened modern trainers have largely abandoned the use of punish-ment, relying on reward-based methods that have their roots in compar-ative psychology. Yet for some reason, old-school trainers continue todominate the media—largely, I suspect, because their confrontationalmethods make for a more exciting spectacle.While a more sympathetic understanding of dogs’ minds is being ap-plied to training, albeit patchily, their physical health has been progres-sively undermined. As more and more demands have been placed onxiPreface978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page xi the family dog in terms of hygiene, control, and behavior, the breedingof dogs who might be suited for this ever more demanding niche hasbeen left in the hands of enthusiasts whose primary goal is to producedogs that look good. Ginger, although he came from pedigree stock, wasonly ten or so generations away from Scottish and Irish rat-catchers ofno particular breeding and, as a result, led a long and healthy life. Now,the Cairn terrier is in danger of becoming the victim of inbreeding forthe show-ring, plagued by over a dozen hereditary complaints such asthe exotically named but apparently excruciatingly painful Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.Biologists now know far more about what really makes dogs tickthan they did even a decade ago, but this new understanding has beenslow to percolate through to owners and, indeed, has not yet madeenough of a difference to the lives of the dogs themselves. Having stud-ied the behavior of dogs for over twenty years, as well as enjoying theircompany, I felt it was time that someone stood up for dogdom: not thecaricature of the wolf in a dog suit, ready to dominate his unsuspectingowner at the first sign of weakness, not the trophy animal who collectsrosettes and kudos for her breeder, but the real dog, the pet who justwants to be a member of the family and enjoy life.xiiPreface978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page xii AcknowledgmentsISouthampton, and finally at the University of Bristol’s AnthrozoologyInstitute. Some of what I’ve learned about dogs has come from direct ob-servation, especially in the early days, but much has been informed bycollaborations and discussions with many, many colleagues and graduatestudents. The original research described in this book owes much tothem, though of course I take full responsibility for the interpretationspresented here. In roughly chronological order, they are: ChristopherThorne, David Macdonald, Stephan Natynczuk, Benjamin Hart, SarahBrown, Ian Robinson, Helen Nott, Stephen Wickens, Amanda Lea,Sarah Whitehead, Gwen Bailey, James Serpell, Rory Putman, AnitaNightingale, Claire Hoskin, Robert Hubrecht, Claire Guest, DeborahWells, Elizabeth Kershaw, Anne McBride, Sarah Heath, Justine McPher-son, David Appleby, Barbara Schöning, Emily Blackwell, Jolanda Pluij-makers, Theresa Barlow, Helen Almey, Elly Hiby, Sara Jackson, ElizabethPaul, Nicky Robertson, Claire Cooke, Samantha Gaines, Anne Pullen,and Carri Westgarth—and many more too numerous to list. Two deservea special mention: Nicola Rooney, who, in addition to producing consis-tently world-class research on dog behavior and welfare for the pastdozen years, has been the social life and soul of my research group; andRachel Casey— arguably the UK’s leading veterinary behaviorist andunarguably an indefatigable champion of evidence-based dog training’ve spent the best part of thirty years studying dog behavior, firstat the Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition, then at the University ofxiii978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page xiii xivAcknowledgmentsand behavioral therapy. My thanks also to the University of Bristol’sSchool of Veterinary Medicine, and especially professors Christine Nicoland Mike Mendl, and Dr. David Main, for nurturing the AnthrozoologyInstitute and its research.Our research has relied on the cooperation of literally thousands ofvolunteer dog owners and their dogs, to whom I express my gratitude.Also, much of our research would have been impossible without the fa-cilities and cooperation offered by the UK’s leading animal rehomingcharities: Dogs Trust, the Blue Cross, and the RSPCA.There are many other academics and dog experts I’ve met onlybriefly, but whose published work has been an enormous inspiration.Many I have been able to mention specifically in the endnotes. Like anybranch of science, the systematic study of dog behavior embraces manyapproaches and opinions, and sometimes these can be expressed quiteforcefully. Yet there is a crucial difference between canine science andcanine folklore—scientists are ready to evaluate evidence gathered byothers, and to change their opinions if these evaluations indicate thatthey should. Canine scientists are not in the business of peddling opin-ion as if it were fact; they contribute to a body of knowledge that, whilenever complete, continually gains strength from ongoing discussionamong numerous experts. I am grateful to them all, even those whoseviews are now largely discredited or unfashionable. Science advancesthrough the replacement of one hypothesis by another that better fitsthe data; without the first to act as a stimulus to creative thought, thesecond might never have been conceived.Condensing all of this science into a book of reasonable length hasnot been easy, but my agent Patrick Walsh, and Lara Heimert, my edi-tor at Basic Books, have taught me a great deal about how to aim for awider audience than the academic community that I have mainly writ-ten for in the past.I’ve been amazed and delighted by how my old friend Alan Peters’drawings have brought my descriptions of dogs and canids to life. He’snot only a wonderful artist but also a skillful gundog trainer (and fal-coner) and so was able to bring to the task a lifetime’s experience of howdogs move and interact.978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page xiv Finally, to my family. My wife, Nicky, has been an unwavering sourceof support throughout all the years of my academic career, and especiallyduring the year or so it’s taken me to write this book—I cannot thankher enough. Thanks also to my brother Jeremy for giving me the encour-agement to start this book in the first place. Netty, Emma, and Pete,thank you for refreshing my brain with music; Tom and Jez likewise butwith microbrews, Rioja, and cricket.xvAcknowledgments978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page xv 978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page xvi xviiIntroductionTten as an integral part of our families. To many people, a world withoutdogs is unthinkable.And yet dogs today unwittingly find themselves on the verge of acrisis, struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing pace of change inhuman society. Until just over a hundred years ago, most dogs workedfor their living. Each of the breeds or types had become well suited, overthousands of years and a corresponding number of generations, to thetask for which they were bred. First and foremost, dogs were tools. Theiragility, quick thinking, keen senses, and unparalleled ability to com municate with humans suited them to an extraordinary diversity oftasks—hunting, herding, guarding, and many others, each an importantcomponent of the economy. In short, dogs had to earn their keep; apartfrom the few lapdogs who were the playthings of the very rich, the com-pany that dogs provided would have been incidental; rewarding, butnot their raison d’être. Then, a few dozen generations ago, everythingbegan to change—and these changes are still gathering pace today.Indeed, an ever-increasing proportion of dogs are never expected towork at all; their sole function is to be family pets. Although many work-ing types have successfully adapted, others were and still are poorly suitedto this new role, so it is perhaps surprising that none of the breeds thathe dog has been our faithful companion for tens of thousands ofyears. Today, dogs live alongside humans all across the globe, of--978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page xvii are most popular as family pets have been specifically and exclusively designed as such. Thus far, dogs have done their best to adjust to themany changes and restrictions we have imposed upon them—in particu-lar, our expectation that they will be companionable when we needthem to be and unobtrusive when we don’t. However, the cracks inher-ent in this compromise are beginning to widen. As human society con-tinues to change and the planet becomes ever more crowded, there aresigns that the popularity of dogs as pets has peaked and that their adapta-tion to yet another lifestyle may be a struggle— ronments. After all, dogs, as living beings, cannot be reengineered everydecade or so as if they were computers or cars. In the past, when dogs’functions were mostly rural, it was accepted that they were intrinsicallymessy and needed to be managed on their own terms. Today, by contrast,many pet dogs live in circumscribed, urban environments and are ex-pected to be simultaneously better behaved than the average humanchild and as self-reliant as adults. As if these new obligations were notenough, many dogs still manifest the adaptations that suited them fortheir original functions—traits that we now demand they cast away as ifthey had never existed. The collie who herds sheep is the shepherd’s bestfriend; the pet collie who tries to herd children and chases bicycles is anowner’s nightmare. The new, unrealistic standards to which many hu-mans hold their dogs have arisen from one of several fundamental mis-conceptions about what dogs are and what they have been designed todo. We must come to better understand their needs and their nature iftheir niche in human society is not to diminish.Our rapidly changing expectations are not the only challenge thatdogs face today. The ways in which we now control their reproductionalso represent a major challenge to their well-being. For much of humanhistory, dogs were bred to suit the roles that humankind assigned tothem—but whether their task was herding, retrieving, guarding, orhauling, dogs’ stability and functionality were considered far more im-portant than their type or appearance. In the late nineteenth century,however, dogs were grouped into self-contained breeds, reproductivelyisolated from one another, and each assigned a single ideal appearance,or “standard,” by breed societies. For many dogs this rigid categorizationhas not worked out well; rather, it has worked against their need toespecially in urban envi-xviiiIntroduction978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page xviii adapt into their new primary role as companions. Each breeder strivesnot to breed the perfect pet but to produce the perfect-looking dog whowill succeed in the show-ring. These winning dogs are considered prizedstock and make a hugely disproportionate genetic contribution to thenext generation—resulting in “pure” breeds whose idealized appearancebelies their deteriorated health. In the 1950s, most breeds still hada healthy range of genetic variation; by 2000, only some twenty totwenty-five generations later, many had been inbred to the point wherehundreds of genetically based deformities, diseases, and disadvantageshad emerged, potentially compromising the welfare of every purebreddog. In the UK, the growing rift between dog breeders and those con-cerned with dogs’ welfare finally became public in 2008, resulting in thewithdrawal of the humane charities—and subsequently that of BBCTelevision, the event’s broadcaster—from Crufts, the country’s nationaldog show. While such protests are a start, the dogs themselves will notfeel any benefit until the problems brought about by excessive inbreed-ing have been reversed and dogs are bred with their health and role insociety, not their looks, in mind.Ultimately, people will have to change their attitudes if the dog’s lotis to improve. So far, however, neither the experts nor the averageowner have had their preconceived notions challenged by the wealthof new science that is emerging about dogs. Much of the public debatethus far, whether about the merits of outbreeding versus inbreeding orthe effectiveness of training methods, has amounted to little more thanthe statement and restatement of entrenched opinions. This is wherescientific understanding becomes essential, for it can tell us what dogsare really like and what their needs really amount to.Science is an essential tool for understanding dogs, but the contribu-tions of canine science to dog welfare have, unfortunately, been some-what mixed. Canine science, which originated in the 1950s, sets out toprovide a rational perspective on what it’s like to be a dog—a perspec-tive ostensibly more objective than the traditional human- anthropomorphic view of their natures. Despite this attempt at detach-ment, however, canine scientists have occasionally misunderstood—and even given others the license to cause injury to—the very animalswhose nature they have endeavored to reveal.centered orxixIntroduction978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page xix Science has, unwittingly, done the most damage to dogs by applyingthe comparative zoology approach to studies of dog behavior. Com parative zoology is a well-established and generally valuable way of understanding the behavior and adaptations of one species throughcomparisons with those of another. Species that are closely related buthave different lifestyles can often be better understood through com-parative zoology, because differences in the way they look and behavemirror those changes in lifestyle; so, too, can those species that havecome to have similar lives but are genetically unrelated. This methodhas been highly successful in helping to disentangle the mechanisms ofevolution in general, especially now that similarities and differencesin behavior can be compared with differences between each species’DNA, so as to pinpoint the genetic basis of behavior.Yet although the applications of comparative zoology are usually be-nign, it has done considerable harm to dogs, as one expert after anotherhas interpreted their behavior as if they were, under the surface, littlealtered from that of their ancestor, the wolf. Wolves, which have gener-ally been portrayed as vicious animals, constantly striving for domi-nance over every other member of their own kind, have been held upas the only credible model for understanding the behavior of dogs.1This supposition leads inevitably to the misconception that every dogis constantly trying to control its owner—unless its owner is relentlessin keeping it in check. The conflation of dog and wolf behavior is stillwidely promoted in books and on television programs, but recent re-search on both dogs and wolves has shown not only that it is simplyunfounded but also that dogs who do come into conflict with theirowners are usually motivated by anxiety, not a surfeit of ambition.Since this fundamental misunderstanding has crept into almost everytheory of dog behavior, it will be the first to be addressed in this book.Despite the misapplication of comparative zoology, more recent sci-entific discoveries could, if applied properly, benefit dogs considerably.Although canine science went into eclipse in the 1970s and ’80s, the1990s saw the field’s resurgence, which has continued to the presentday. After nearly fifty years of almost total neglect, this extraordinaryuplift in scientific interest in the domestic dog has been driven partlyby the increasing role that dogs play in detecting substances such as ex--xxIntroduction978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page xx plosives, drugs, and other illicit substances (which they still sniff outmore effectively than any machine) and the attendant realization thathumans need to better understand how dogs perform these tasks. It hasalso been due to the shift in attention from the chimpanzee to the do-mestic dog on the part of a few primatologists who have attempted togain fresh insights into the way that animal and human minds work. Afurther contribution has come from veterinarians and other clinicianswho wish to improve the therapies available for treating dogs with be-havioral disorders. Finally, it should not be forgotten that many biolo-gists are dog lovers too. Once the professional stigma of working onso-called artificial animals has been overcome, such scientists are oftenkeen to apply their skills to improving dogs’ lives.By further pulling back the curtain on dogs’ inner lives, the newschool of canine science has the potential to provide everyday dog owners with new ways of thinking about—and relating to—their pets.Thanks to the efforts of this new community of scientists, we now havea vastly improved understanding of how dogs’ minds work—specifically,how dogs gather and interpret information about the world aroundthem, and how they react emotionally to varying situations. Some ofthis research has revealed startling differences between dogs and people,suggesting that it is both desirable and possible for dog owners to “thinkdog” rather than simply assuming that whatever they themselves aresensing and feeling, their dog must be sensing and feeling too.Although the new science about dog behavior has the potential toput the dog’s role in human society back on track, little of the researchhas been made available outside of obscure academic texts until now.In this book, I attempt to translate for the general readers—and doglovers—the exciting new developments in canine science. Doing so requires me to overturn a great deal of conventional wisdom about dogsand how we should interact with them. In the first half of the book, Ishow that the most up-to-date account of the dog’s origins, while con-firming that the wolf is indeed the dog’s only ancestor, reveals a verydifferent image of dog’s nature than seemed to be the case only two de-cades ago. Dogs may be constructed from wolf DNA, but this does notmean that they are compelled to behave or think like wolves; indeed,domestication has changed dogs’ minds and behaviors to the pointxxiIntroduction978046501 9441 -text_Layout 1 2/25/1 1 1 :1 0 PM Page xxi where such comparisons can be a hindrance, rather than an aid, to anygenuine understanding of our pets.The new science of dog behavior has dramatic implications for humans—and for our choice of the best and most humane ways to trainour dogs. A word of caution here, though: This book is not a trainingmanual. Rather, its purpose is to show where modern ideas about dogtraining have come from, so that owners themselves can effectivelyevaluate whether the training manuals or trainers they have chosenreally know what they are talking about.After revising the story of the dog’s origins, I will explore what mightloosely be referred to as dogs’ “brainpower.” Scientists have recentlyturned their attention to the kinds of beliefs that owners have abouttheir dogs’ emotional and intellectual capabilities, and their findings aredemonstrating how accurate—but also how mistaken—these beliefs canbe. It’s an integral aspect of human nature to attribute feelings not justto animals but also to inanimate objects—to speak, for example, of “anangry sky” or “the cruel sea”—and yet, until a few decades ago, it wasanybody’s guess as to what emotions different animals might have.Many scientists, moreover, used to regard emotions as simply too subjec-tive to be accessible to serious study. While animal intelligence has beenstudied for more than a hundred years, hardly anyone considered dogsworthy of study until perhaps the end of the twentieth century. Sincethen, research has significantly changed the ways in which we thinkabout dogs’ min...