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Illustrated History of Landscape Design_部分2


内容提示: 127Porta was completed by Carlo Maderno in 1603. The orientation of the hillside villa is to the northwest; views are across the campagna toward Rome. The villa is set on a large terrace, creating in the front a platform to launch sight lines and in the back a garden. The rear terrace is carved out of the slope, forming an exedra. The south facade of the villa, the side toward the garden, is more articulated and detailed than the north facade. The facade of the Villa Aldobrandini has a distinctive “broken...

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127Porta was completed by Carlo Maderno in 1603. The orientation of the hillside villa is to the northwest; views are across the campagna toward Rome. The villa is set on a large terrace, creating in the front a platform to launch sight lines and in the back a garden. The rear terrace is carved out of the slope, forming an exedra. The south facade of the villa, the side toward the garden, is more articulated and detailed than the north facade. The facade of the Villa Aldobrandini has a distinctive “broken” pediment, a Mannerist play on the classical orders. The palazzo looks enormous, but is only two rooms deep (a central foyer affords views to both the garden and the city). A long entrance allée helps merge the huge mass of the structure into the landscape. Movement is up along the axis, but def l ected to the side as one enters the villa. Originally, two small allées bordered the path, disguising utilitarian gardens and orchards; today, a single massive pleached allée leads from the town to the villa. A unique illusion is created at the end of the al-lée—the roof of the villa appears to sit on top of a grotto. Curved double ramps lead up to the forecourt and then to the ground fl oor. Access to the piano nobile can be made directly from the garden level at back.The highlight of the rear garden terrace is the nymphaeum, or water theater. The space is def i ned by a large semicir-cular retaining wall, with arched niches containing sculptures of mythological fi gures. Atlas is at center holding up the world, drenched by a cascade from above. The exedra is terminated by two pavilions, one a chapel to St. Sebastian, the patron saint of the Aldobrandi-nis, and the other a room of hydraulic wonders.17th CENTURY / ITALY Toward the end of the 16th century in It-aly, the order and clarity of Renaissance styles gave way to a design impulse that expressed the uncertainty and unease felt by society. Space became ambigu-ous, illusionistic, and distorted. Optical tricks shook one’s belief in the order of world. In the 17th century, Mannerist tendencies were taken to an extreme. Baroque styles were characterized by a restlessness and exaggeration of detail. The rational vocabulary of circles and squares was supplemented by the introduction of spiral, oval, and diagonal geometries that kept the eye moving through space.DETAIL AND DRAMA IN THE GARDENLandscape space became more theatri-cal. Italian gardens of the 17th century were large-scale productions, no longer limited by the conception of villa, garden, and bosco as an ensemble complete in itself. 21 Gardens now functioned as places of spectacle and entertainment. Plants and architecture became the set decoration for fi gurative and literal gar-den theaters. The use of sculpture and water to animate a space was taken to new levels. The three gardens described next are characteristic of the Italian Baroque style. VILLA ALDOBRANDINI, FRASCATI The town of Frascati, in the Alban hills southeast of Rome, has been a popular location for villeggiatura, or summertime escape, since ancient times. Cardinal Pi-etro Aldobrandini began work on his villa, a gift from his uncle Pope Clement VIII, in 1592. The initial work of Giacomo della ITALIAN BAROQUE STYLESFRASCATI VILLAS: In the 17th century, papal princes tried to outdo one another with the lavish retreats they built in the hills of Frascati. The massive facades of many of the villas were visible from Rome.09_289334_ch05.indd 127 12/28/09 4:23 PM 128The water features at Villa Aldobrandini were made possible by the construction of several new aqueducts. Water was brought to the villa from Mount Algido, 6 miles away. Giovanni Fontana and Orazio Olivieri engineered the water-works. The cascade begins in the woods behind the villa, in a “natural” grotto at the highest level, and travels down a rough and rocky channel to the second terrace. A “rustic” grotto on the second terrace contains fi gures of peasants. The water continues along a smooth channel to the cascade, which is framed by the twin Pillars of Hercules. Water spirals down the columns in rills. Optical illusions become evident: The garden terrace disappears and the uppermost loggias of the villa appear to hover over the water staircase, framed by the pillars. Conversely, from the villa, the watercourse, hemmed in by the woods, appears much closer. The Pillars of Hercules represented the edge of the known world in antiquity. In that context, the design of the Villa Aldobrandini could be understood as an axis mundi, a metaphor for the rela-tionship between heaven and earth. 23 The villa marks the threshold between paradise (the river of life springing from the grotto in the woods) and the world (the city of Rome in the distance).BAROQUE GEOMETRY: The design of Villa Aldobrandini incorporates site planning principles and architectural features that are typical of Frascati villas. 22OPTICAL TRICKERY: Terrain was manipulated to create spatial illu-sions at Villa Aldobrandini.17th CENTURY / ITALY09_289334_ch05.indd 128 12/28/09 4:23 PM 129VISUAL NARRATIVE: Villa Aldobrandini09_289334_ch05.indd 129 12/28/09 4:23 PM 130BOBOLI GARDENS, FLORENCE Niccolo Tribolo began laying out the gardens behind the Pitti Palace in 1549, shortly after the property was acquired by Cosimo I de’ Medici (1519-1574). As illustrated in a lunette painted by Giusto Utens at the end of the 16th century, the topography behind the palazzo was manipulated to form a “natural” amphitheater. A large fountain of Oceanus can be seen on the axis. The gardens celebrated the water that Cosimo brought to Florence through his construction of aqueducts. 24 Additions to the gar-dens continued throughout the 16th century. Ammannati extended the palace in 1558, adding a courtyard and a grotto. To commemorate the wedding of Cosimo’s son, Francesco, in 1565, Giorgio Vasari built a corridor that linked the palace with the Palazzo della Signoria across the Arno.Beginning in 1618, Giulio Parigi and his son Alfonso extended the garden along a subsidiary axis on the western portion of the site. Called the Viot-tolone, the dramatic, cypress-lined avenue leads down a slope to the Isolotto. Here, an oval pond contains an oval-shaped island and the colossal Oceanus sculpture formerly located within the grassy amphitheater. The island, inspired perhaps by Hadrian’s Maritime Theater, is surrounded by a stone balustrade and evenly spaced, potted citrus trees. Two bridges con-nect to the isolotto along the path of the axis. The space is surrounded by a dark green clipped ilex hedge.The Parigis added stone seats to Tribolo’s arena, creating a proper amphitheater and a more formal venue for the fetes, masques, horse ballets, and wedding celebrations staged by the Medicis. They also continued work beyond the amphi-theater, adding a horseshoe-shaped terrace with a Fountain of Abundance at the upper limits of the original axis. From the piano nobile of the Pitti Palace, views seem to extend indef i nitely along the axis of the amphitheater. The wings of the building appear continuous with the landform. From the reverse view, the distance seems compressed, the sunken courtyard becomes invisible, and the building becomes a ledge for views to the Arno valley. These optical illusions are typical Baroque tricks, ref l ective of the subversive attitude toward order that characterized the era. 17th CENTURY / ITALYBOBOLI GARDENS, FLORENCE: The garden was enlarged in the 17th century, its redesign expressing a Baroque taste for the-atrics and display.09_289334_ch05.indd 130 12/28/09 4:23 PM 131ISOLA BELLA, LAGOMAGGIOREThe palace and terraced gardens that comprise Count Carlo Borromeo’s confection on Lago Maggiore were begun in 1630. The architectonic fantasy took over 40 years to complete. Early sketches show Isola Bella as a rigid shiplike form, but some features, such as the “prow” of cypresses, were never constructed. The palace complex occupies the north end of the island. A fi shing village lies to the west. The south end of the island contains 10 rectangular garden terrac-es. But the axial alignment between the palace and garden could not be made symmetrical. The offset is disguised by curving stairs that accommodate the displacement: The steps on the east side have wider treads and meet the steps on the west side at a point past the centerline.Entrance to the gardens is through a courtyard at the back of the palace, where a sculpture of Diana catches a glimpse of herself in a basin. The curving steps and staircases lead to the ter-race of the camphor tree, on deck six. A large concave/convex staircase is cen-17th CENTURY / ITALYVIOTTOLONE ILLUSIONS: Looking down the Viotto-lone toward the Isolotto space seems to expand; yet looking back up the allée, the distance ap-pears compressed.ISOLA BELLA, LAGO MAGGIORE: The main organizing axis is tilted to the west.09_289334_ch05.indd 131 12/28/09 4:23 PM 13217th CENTURY / ITALYFANTASY ISLAND: Isola Bella was always intended to look like a galleon.WATER THEATER: A terraced exedra of arched niches is decorated with shells, pinnacles, nymphs, and cher-ubs at Isola Bella.tered on the amazing water theater and crowned with a unicorn, the Borromeo herald. The uppermost terrace behind the water theater affords breathtaking views of the lake and the Swiss Alps. On the south end, octagonal pavilions anchor the widened fi fth terrace. The top fi ve levels are oriented with their long sides perpendicular to the lower terraces, elongating the garden toward the palace. The terraces contain par-terres of lawn and fl owers; peacocks roam free. Every platform is a stage, but the water theater is the star. In typical Baroque fashion, proportions are distorted. The verticality is over-whelming, creating a sense of tension with the horizontal planes. Typical compositional principles of foreground-midground-background are unsettled by the villa’s position on the lake. 25 Water is the intermediary zone. The island con-f i nes the visitor, but not the view.09_289334_ch05.indd 132 12/28/09 4:23 PM 133After the peace of Westphalia liberated Holland from Spanish control, the country emerged as an economic power in the 17th century through the formation of interna-tional trading companies and banks. For the most part, Dutch gardens ref l ected the modest tastes of the middle-class merchants who built them, and not the affectations of an elite aristocracy. 26 By the 17th century, an enthusiasm for horti-cultural science developed in the Nether-lands, building on the research conducted in early botanic gardens. Bulbs, and tulips in particular, were collected with passion. The enduring love of fl owers is evident in Dutch garden design.17TH CENTURY / THE NETHERLANDSTHE FLOWERING OF THE DUTCH LANDSCAPEHET LOO: The 15-acre Great Garden, directly behind the palace, is divided into lower and upper sections. Dutch garden styles continued the Italian Renaissance tradition of com-partments and formal geometries, the orthogonal division of space well suited to the rectangular patterns of land formed from dykes and canals. Vernacu-lar elements included wooden gazebos and berceaux (vault-shaped trellises), parterres de pieces coupées (patterns made primarily with fl owers), canals (both functional and ornamental), and large basins of still water (abundant, of course, in the fl at Low Countries). Stationary decorations (potted plants, topiary, statuary) magnif i ed the static quality of space. The protracted avenues of the French Baroque were incompatible with the Dutch landscape and mind-set. But French inf l uence can be seen in the intricate ornamentation within the Ital-ian Renaissance framework. TRIM AND TIDY LANDSCAPESHet Loo, the royal palace of William and Mary, exemplif i es 17th-century Dutch garden style. Prince William was a provin-cial governor from the House of Orange; his wife, Mary, was the daughter of King James II of England. Garden construc-tion began in 1686 in conjunction with the planning of William’s hunting lodge. Dutch architect Jacob Roman and French architect Daniel Marot collaborated on the design. Marot was a Huguenot who fl ed to the Netherlands after Louis XIV expelled the Protestants from France. His inf l uence can be seen in the parterre design and the expansiveness of the upper garden. Addi-tional work was done on the gardens after the coronation of William and Mary as king and queen of England, in 1689. The garden was completely destroyed during the 18th century when Louis Napoleon covered it over to build a picturesque, English-style garden. Restoration of Het Loo to its original form began in 1979.The U-shaped lower garden is def i ned by raised walkways on three sides, opening to an oak-lined cross-avenue. The garden contains intricate parterres de brode-rie; 27 sculptures mark the intersections of the pathways. The interior decora-tion of the palace echoes the elaborate arabesque patterns in the King’s and Queen’s Gardens located on either side of the palace, below the royal apartments. Rectangular planting bands around the parterre displayed new plant species between clipped evergreens.The large upper garden was built in 1689, ref l ecting the new trend toward spacious-ness. Grass parterres continued the strict geometry and formal symmetry about the central axis. The enormous King’s Fountain, fed by a natural spring, marks the center. A semicircular colon-nade terminates the axis; a previous conf i guration of the colonnade created an axial vista to a distant obelisk. The gardens at Het Loo contain numerous fountains, canals, and cascades.TULIPMANIA: Speculation in tu-lip markets drove prices to exorbi-tant levels; for-tunes were made and destroyed.09_289334_ch05.indd 133 12/28/09 4:24 PM 134D utch, French, and Italian inf l uences can be seen in 17th-century English gardens. During the reign of William and Mary, garden spaces displayed a compactness characteristic of Dutch gardens. Emphasis was on the planting of fl owers, particularly tulips, as well as the creation of topiary forms. At the same time, a classical sensibility informed the architecture of the period, based on the work of Inigo Jones, who had studied in Rome.England saw an inf l ux of French Hu-guenot refugees, as did other northern countries. These artists and craftsmen transported continental design ideas, as well as new plants, across the chan-nel. New varieties of fruit trees were of particular interest to the English. They adapted the French idea of the vista, too, but the terrain of England did not permit inf i nite views. Parterres were also popular, particularly patterns cre-ated solely with grass and gravel.Representative examples include Hat-f i eld House and Hampton Court. HATFIELD HOUSE, HERTFORDSHIRE Robert Cecil was given Hatf i eld House in exchange for a property he owned that was coveted by King James I. In 1611, Cecil began rebuilding Hat-f i eld House. He laid out the gardens around a north-south axis. The house sits between a spacious balustraded forecourt and rear terrace. Garden courts and terraces to the east and west form a cross-axis. A path from a formal parterre on the east side leads to a bowling green and maze. The gar-den rooms illustrate the continuation of Italian Renaissance styles. Water features were designed by Salomon de Caus. Exotic plants were provided by John Tradescant, the elder. 28Pleasure gardens such as Cecil’s were popular until Cromwell turned the country’s attention to more practical forms of horticulture, enlarging farms 17th CENTURY / ENGLISH GARDENSA RESTRAINED MIX OF EUROPEAN STYLESHATFIELD HOUSE, HERTFORDSHIRE: The county manor is typical of early (Pre-Restoration) 17th-century estates.HAMPTON COURT: William and Mary’s addition to the palace ref l ected compact, colorful Dutch styles.09_289334_ch05.indd 134 12/28/09 4:24 PM 135and improving agriculture. Many of the manor houses were destroyed during the Commonwealth of 1649–1660.HAMPTON COURT, MIDDLESEX(LONDON) Charles II returned from exile in France and was restored to the throne by a reconvened parliament in 1660. He ap-pointed two French designers, Gabriel and Andre Mollet as royal gardeners, hence French formalism and spatial def i nition were imported to Britain. 29 William and Mary later enlarged Hamp-ton Court, adding a new block designed by Christopher Wren to the eastern part of the castle. Henry VIII’s tudor gardens were altered to ref l ect Dutch styles. Modif i cations made to Hampton Court by Charles II include the Broad Walk, Long Canal, and patte d’oie. The tree-lined Broad Walk along the east front of the palace projects out into a semicircular allée that intercepts the three arms of the patte d’oie—the goosefoot pattern of radial avenues designed by the Mollets. The Long Canal is an extension of the central toe of the patte d’oie. The Great Fountain Court, designed by Daniel Marot, dates from the reign of William and Mary. Contained within the semicircular allée were par-terres de broderie, topiary, fountains, and many sculptures. Late in his life William added the Chestnut Avenue to the north side of the palace, adjacent to the Wilderness. Queen Anne (ruled 1702–1714) obliterated any trace of Dutch garden styles, grassing over the parterres and removing fountains and topiaried trees.17TH CENTURY / ENGLISH GARDENSLEVENS HALL, CUMBRIA: The famous topiary garden was laid out in 1694 by Guil-laume Beaumont, gardener to King James II. The plan also included a rose garden, orchard, nuttery, herb and vegetable gardens, bowling green, and a massive beech hedge.09_289334_ch05.indd 135 12/28/09 4:24 PM 136In 17th-century France, people’s at-titudes toward nature changed. Nature was not considered beautiful until hu-man order was imposed upon it: Shrubs were clipped into hedges, trees trimmed to form palissades, contours graded with precision, rivers diverted, lands inscribed with straight paths and allées, and the ground decorated with par-terres de broderie. Parterres were best appreciated from a high vantage point, hence the house gained new author-ity as the symbol of visual control in a garden.ENDLESS HORIZONSAxial extensions out into the landscape created a new relationship between building, garden, and landscape. A spatial dynamic developed based on breakthroughs in physics and math-ematics. The mathematics of inf i nity as developed by Rene Descartes implied “limitless” space. 30 A horizon was rec-ognized as being dependent upon one’s point of view. Landscape designers applied the science of optics (involving ref l ection, refraction, and geometry) to the creation of perspectival space, expressing the ultimate control and power that humans had over nature. The large-scale manipulation of the landscape that characterizes French classical gardens had much in common with the theory and practice of 17th-century military engineering. French military engineers were the fi rst to deal with massive earthworks. A fortress, like a garden, is geometrically controlled space. To ensure security, all parts must harmonize; there can be no weak spot in a defensive fortif i cation. 31 In ad-dition, when distances become so great, measurement becomes crucial. The incredible precision with which landscape designers created fl at terraces and ca-nals was made possible by the advanced instrumentation and mathematics of military engineers. The popularity of the Italian Baroque style remained centered around Rome during the Counter-Reformation. Other European capitals also adopted Ba-roque design vocabularies to express the dynamism of a world in motion. The 17th-century French garden, on the other hand, was inspired by ideals of grandeur and monumentality represented by classical civilization. Louis XIV compared himself to Augustus; he wanted to cre-ate the new Rome. 17th CENTURY / FRENCH CLASSICAL GARDENSINSTRUMENTS FOR CALCULATING LEVELS, c. 1694: Large-scale earthworks were made possible by advances in military engineering.THE CONTROL OF NATURE09_289334_ch05.indd 136 12/28/09 4:24 PM 137the grand traditions fi rst established by Claude Mollet (1563–1650) and Boyceau. He eventually assumed his father’s role as superintendent of royal gardens. Le Notre understood space as an abstraction, and was able to impart more clarity and unity on the style of his predecessors. His was an ordered geometry based on Cartesian logic. When designing a landscape, he said “man sets himself up as a little god.” 33 He shaped nature with purpose.Le Notre collected the paintings of Claude Lorrain. Like Lorrain, Le Notre used devices to create spatial illu-sions. Lorrain’s compositions and color palettes created a golden atmosphere that dissolved into inf i nite perspec-tive. His paintings show mythological fi gures and classical architecture set in a utopian landscape; an ordered world not unlike the one Louis XIV created at Versailles. (The aesthetics of the pastoral ideal as represented by the 17th-century landscape painters would have particularly powerful implications in the formation of an English garden style in the 18th century.)At the age of 37, Le Notre teamed up with his artist friend Charles Le Brun and the architect Louis Le Vau to undertake work for Louis XIV’s fi nance minister. Vaux-le-Vicomte was the fi rst in a series of notable collaborations, and epitomizes the spirit of the 17th-century French formal garden. Andre Le Notre died in 1700 at the age of 88. The clar-ity of the French formal style expressed in his work was imitated across the continent. La Theorie et le pratique du jardinage by Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d’Argenville, written in 1709, summarized the elements of the French Classical garden based on Le Notre’s work. The book became enormously popular, diffus-ing the grand style throughout Europe.THE WORK OF ANDRE LE NOTREAndre Le Notre (1613–1700) grew up in Paris, where his father was superinten-dent of the royal palace gardens at the Tuileries. (The Louvre was still the seat of government.) Le Notre studied the curriculum for landscape designers sug-gested by the recognized authority on gardening, Jacques Boyceau: geometry, perspective, drafting, architecture, and horticulture. He studied painting at the studio of Simon Vouet, an early advocate of the French Classical style, where he met fellow student Charles Le Brun. As a young man Le Notre worked at the Tuileries and Fountainbleau, continuing THE COURT OF LOUIS XIVFrance was launched as a leading Euro-pean power in 1648, when the Peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years’ War. But a period of social and political un-rest followed, called the Fronde, in which the French nobility rebelled against the king. Louis XIV (1638–1715) was able to subordinate the dissidents and estab-lish an absolute monarchy; in 1655, he proclaimed “L’Etat, c’est moi” (I am the State). His great garden at Versailles is symbolic of absolute power and control.To keep an eye on the nobility and quash any potential insurgency, at-tendance at court was expected of the noble families by Louis XIV. Any kind of advancement or favor required attracting the king’s attention. The court was always under scrutiny by the king, and proper etiquette, which dictated everything from dress to fa-cial expressions, had to be observed. 32 The landscape itself conformed to this idea; formal gardens compelled formal behavior. The garden was the stage for the political and social theater of 17th-century France. To accommodate the entire nobility and the huge retinues that followed the monarch, royal gardens and palaces had to be enormous. Vast volumes of void space were carved out of dense forests. The palace at Versailles stands on a huge terrace, surrounded by parterres; sculptural urns and fountains are the only vertical elements, and they are dwarfed by the expanse of their sur-roundings. Only crowds in the thousands would make the scale of the place com-prehensible. The vista is what made the landscape dynamic.17TH CENTURY / FRENCH CLASSICAL GARDENSANDRE LE NOTRE: The landscape designer’s success was due in part to his mastery of court etiquette.09_289334_ch05.indd 137 12/28/09 4:24 PM 13817th CENTURY / FRENCH CLASSICAL GARDENSVAUX-LE-VICOMTE Nicolas Fouquet, superintendent of fi -nances for the king, hired the team of Le Notre, Le Brun, and Le Vau to design his new chateau at Maincy (about 34 miles from Paris). Initial site work involved the demolition of three villages. More than 18,000 laborers constructed the project from 1656 to 1661. Vaux-le-Vicomte is approached through the woods. A semicircular clearing in front of decorative wrought iron gates leads to the moated chateau. The visi-tor passes into the Court of Honor. Two lower parterres fl ank the chateau to the east and west. From the terrace behind the chateau, the garden propels itself into the landscape. Space is carved out of the forest, the green backdrop acting like stage wings, or a coulisse, that keeps the view focused toward the horizon and provides a dark contrast for sculptural elements. Small clearings and paths hid-den within the ornamental groves, called bosquets, provide intimate subspaces. The entire garden appears to be compre-hensible from a single perspective point behind the chateau. But as one moves through the garden, its true extents and complexities are revealed. Elements are not what they seemed. The ground is not one fl at plane, but a series of subtle level changes and inclines connected by steps. The oval pool is, in fact, circular. A canal cuts across the main axis. The second pool is square, not rectangular. The arcaded grotto, visible from the house, is at a lower level on the far side of another, longer, transverse canal. The grotto forms the base of an upper-level terrace. Opposite the grotto, and hidden from view, one is surprised to fi nd an additional water feature known as the Grandes Cascades. At the terminus of the axis, on the sloping lawn, or tapis vert (“green carpet”), the visitor can make an about-face and see the cha-teau as a central object on the horizon. In this reciprocal view, distances are foreshortened; the gardens appear fl at again. Viewpoint becomes focal point; the gardens form a closed system.COHESIVE GEOMETRY: Vaux-le-Vicomte is considered by many to be the most successful of Le Notre’s gardens.Vaux-le-Vicomte illustrates Le Notre’s understanding of the laws of optics and perspective put forth by Euclid and Des-cartes. As part of the experience of the garden, Le Notre reveals that reality is an illusion; there are logical explanations for the optical effects.Fouquet hosted an elaborate fete upon the completion of his gardens, which the king did not attend. Word spread of the garden’s magnif i cence, and Fouquet was obliged to host another party for the king and his court of thousands. Fouquet’s lavish display of wealth was his undoing; he was imprisoned for embezzlement soon after the event. The property was looted by Louis XIV, who carted off its sculptural and arboreal treasures to Versailles.09_289334_ch05.indd 138 12/28/09 4:24 PM 139Vaux-le-Vicomte CASE STUDY:09_289334_ch05.indd 139 12/28/09 4:24 PM 140VERSAILLES Louis XIV hired the same trio of Le Notre, Le Brun, and Le Vau to convert his father’s hunting lodge into an enter-tainment villa and, later, a royal palace. Le Notre reworked Jacques Boyceau’s original parterre directly behind the chateau and established the axial structure and geometry of the Petit Parc. Versailles, which is located about 15 miles from Paris, became the seat of government in 1682. Additional work was completed to expand the palace to accommodate the nearly 5,000 people who resided at court. The axis grew to monumental proportions with the later 17th CENTURY / FRENCH CLASSICAL GARDENSPETIT PARC: The bosquets between the Fountain of Latona and the Fountain of Apollo form the core of the Petit Parc. Today the Petit Parc at Versailles covers almost 1,900 acres.THE MATHEMATICS OF INFINITY: Cartesian space is endless.09_289334_ch05.indd 140 12/28/09 4:24 PM 141addition of the mile-long grand canal. The vanishing point at Versailles ex-tended to inf i nity, beyond one’s reach. Louis established his persona as the Sun King at a grand, themed festival held at the Tuileries in 1662, called the Carrousel. Heliocentric iconography, including imagery of Apollo, the god of the Sun, is pervasive at Versailles. The layout of the gardens on an east-west axis records the trajectory of the sun, literally and symbolically. Within the palace, the king’s chambers occupy the dominant position on the axis. Fountains and sculptures continue the theme in the garden. 34Versailles, located in a lowland marsh, contained thousands of water features and fountains. The magnif i cent canals were not only an important element of the decorative program, they also feed the fountains by gravity. Still, the Machine de Marly was not adequate; it mostly supplied Louis XIV’s private retreat at Marly.Parties, banquets, ballets—all kinds of events and spectacles were staged in the bosquets, the garden rooms carved out of the ornamental groves helped drain the swamps. The supply and pressure of water, however, was never suff i cient to operate all the water works at once. Gardeners and fontainiers were stationed along the king’s route to turn the fountains on and off as he passed. The magnif i cent Machine de Marly was constructed in 1688 to raise water from the Seine, nearly 4 miles away, and 17TH CENTURY / FRENCH CLASSICAL GARDENSSITE PLAN OF VERSAILLES: The Grand Parc, a woodland crossed with diagonal avenues and rond points, surrounded the Petit Parc. By 1689, the Grand Parc, which included the hunting grounds and the forest at Marly, covered 37,000 acres. LE ROI DE SOLEIL: Louis performed in ballets dressed as Apollo.09_289334_ch05.indd 141 12/28/09 4:24 PM 142parterre. In front of the main struc-ture was the grand parterre, where 12 pavilions, 6 for men and 6 for women, lined both sides of a central pool. was at the center of geometrical parterres. Allées, hedges, and statues decorated the gardens. At the bottom of the cascade at Marly was the petit in different geometric patterns. In one bosquet, a spectacular water theater, built in 1671 and destroyed in the late 18th century, contained hundreds of single jets capable of creating many dif-ferent combinations of effects.The transverse arm of the Grand Canal was terminated by the Trianon at its north end and the menagerie to the south. The Trianon was built to accom-modate Louis’s need to escape the public atmosphere at the palace. In 1671, the Trianon de Porcelaine was built for Louis’s consort, Madame de Montespan. The structure was replaced in 1687 with the Grand Trianon, in honor of his new mistress, Madame de Maintenon. The grounds were used for cultivating fl owers. Hothouses ensured that Louis would have fl owers blooming year-round in the garden.The retreat at Marly, designed in 1677, was even more secluded than the Tri-anon. The hillside location enabled the construction of a cascade, La Riviere, composed of 53 steps of colored marble. As at the Trianon, the house 17th CENTURY / FRENCH CLASSICAL GARDENSMACHINE DE MARLY: Fourteen wheels lifted water 528 feet into res-ervoirs and aqueducts to supply Versailles’s waterworks.FLAGS AND WHISTLES: A crew of behind-the-scenes workers operated the foun-tains at Versailles.09_289334_ch05.indd 142 12/28/09 4:24 PM 14317TH CENTURY / FRENCH CLASSICAL GARDENSBOSQUETS: The bos-quets were decked out with proscenium arches, chandeliers, and tapes-tries as set decorations for performances.CHANTILLY: The chateau is subor-dinate to the monumental axis that organizes the landscape.Above the cascade was a primitive roller coaster, large swings, and other play areas. Louis’s intimate retreat at Marly eventually contained a 300-acre garden and an 1850-acre hunting park. Le Notre is not believed to have been involved in the planning and design of Marly. 35 Although organized around a central axis like Vaux-le-Vicomte, the gar-dens at Versailles were so large and the attractions so numerous that no clear logic existed to visually lead one through the space. When Louis reached middle age, political and fa-milial circumstances discouraged his sponsorship of the huge spectacles of his earlier years. He enjoyed stroll-ing around the gardens and wrote an itinerary for viewing his gardens in a particular order. The king commands: “Enter the labyrinth and after having walked down as far as the ducks and the dog, go up again and leave by the side of Bacchus.” 36 The book, rewrit-ten ...